Wuhan

Wuhan
武汉市
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Wuhan across the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Tortoise Mountain TV Tower, causeway on the East Lake, Hubei Provincial Museum, Yellow Crane Tower
Nickname(s): 
九省通衢[1][2]  
("China's Thoroughfare")
The Chicago of China[3][4][5]
江城  ("River City")
Motto(s): 
武汉,每天不一样!  
("Wuhan, Different Everyday!")
Location of Wuhan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Wuhan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Wuhan is located in Hubei
Wuhan
Wuhan
Location of the city center in Hubei
Wuhan is located in Eastern China
Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan (Eastern China)
Wuhan is located in China
Wuhan
Wuhan
Wuhan (China)
Coordinates (Wuhan municipal government): 30°35′36″N 114°18′17″E / 30.5934°N 114.3046°E / 30.5934; 114.3046Coordinates: 30°35′36″N 114°18′17″E / 30.5934°N 114.3046°E / 30.5934; 114.3046
CountryChina
ProvinceHubei
Settled1500 BC
First unifiedJanuary 1, 1927[7]
Hancheng walls built223 BC
Municipal seatJiang'an District
Divisions[7][8]
 County-level
 Township-level

13 districts
156 subdistricts, 1 towns, 3 townships
Government
 • Typesub-provincial city
 • BodyWuhan Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWang Zhonglin
 • Congress ChairmanHu Lishan
 • MayorCheng Yongwen
 • CPPCC ChairmanYang Zhi
Area
 • Sub-provincial city8,494.41 km2 (3,279.71 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[10]
1,528 km2 (590 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)
 • Sub-provincial city11,081,000[6]
 • Urban
 (2018)[10]
8,896,900[6]
 • Metro19 million
Demonym(s)Wuhanese
Languages
 • LanguagesWuhan dialect, Standard Chinese
Major ethnic groups
 • Major ethnic groupsHan
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
430000–430400
Area code(s)0027
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-01
GDP2020
 – TotalCNY 1.56 trillion
US$240 billion (8th)
 - Per capitaCNY 140,800
US$21,700 (nominal); US$40,000 (purchasing power parity) (11th)
 - GrowthIncrease 10.8% (2020)
License plate prefixes鄂A
鄂O (police and authorities)
HDI (2015)0.839[12] (9th) – very high
City treeMetasequoia[13]
City flowerPlum blossom[14]
Website武汉政府门户网站 (Wuhan Government Web Portal) (in Chinese); English Wuhan (in English)
Wuhan
Wuhan (Chinese characters).svg
"Wuhan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese武汉
Traditional Chinese武漢
Literal meaning"[The combined cities of] Wu[chang] and Han[kou]"

Wuhan (/wˈhæn/, US also /wˈhɑːn, ˈw-/;[15] simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢; pinyin: Wǔhàn; [ù.xân] (About this soundlisten)) is the capital of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China.[16] It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China,[17] with a population of over eleven million, the ninth-most populous Chinese city and one of the nine National Central Cities of China.[18]

The name "Wuhan" came from the city's historical origin from the conglomeration of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang, which are collectively known as the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (武汉三镇). Wuhan lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain, at the confluence of the Yangtze river and its largest tributary, the Han River and is known as "Nine Provinces' Thoroughfare" (九省通衢).[1]

Wuhan is considered by some to be one of the potential sites of the pivotal Battle of the Red Cliffs, a battle that stopped warlord Cao Cao's incursion into southern China at the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. Other historical events taking place in Wuhan include the Wuchang Uprising of 1911, which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.[19] Wuhan was briefly the capital of China in 1927 under the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei.[20] The city later served as the wartime capital of China for ten months in 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.[21][22] Wuhan is considered the political, economic, financial, commercial, cultural and educational center of Central China.[17] It is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities.[23] Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan is sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China" by foreign sources.[3][4][5] The "Golden Waterway" of the Yangtze River and the Han River traverse the urban area and divide Wuhan into the three districts of Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge crosses the Yangtze in the city. The Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity, is located nearby. Historically, Wuhan has suffered risks of flooding,[24] prompting the government to alleviate the situation by introducing ecologically friendly absorption mechanisms.[25]

While Wuhan has been a traditional manufacturing hub for decades, it is also one of the areas promoting modern industrial changes in China. Wuhan consists of three national development zones, four scientific and technological development parks, over 350 research institutes, 1,656 high tech enterprises, numerous enterprise incubators and investments from 230 Fortune Global 500 firms.[26] It produced GDP (nominal) of US$240 billion in 2020. The Dongfeng Motor Corporation, an automobile manufacturer, is headquartered in Wuhan. The city is home to multiple notable institutes of higher education, including Wuhan University[27] and the Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wuhan is a major city in the world by scientific research outputs and it ranks 14th globally and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guangzhou).[28] In 2017, Wuhan was designated as a Creative City by UNESCO, in the field of design.[29] Wuhan is classified as a Beta- (global second tier) city together with seven other cities in China, including Changsha, Dalian, Jinan, Shenyang, Xiamen, Xi'an and Zhengzhou by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[30]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Readmeok Sina was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference City government 九省通衢 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference timemagazine was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Chicago is all over the place was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 水野幸吉 Mizuno Kokichi 2014 3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b 武汉常住人口突破1100万 城市吸引力稳步提升. Xinhua Hubei 长江日报. March 26, 2019. Archived from the original on August 17, 2019. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference history2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference xingzhengquhua was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ "Wuhan Statistical Yearbook 2010" (PDF). Wuhan Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 5, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.p. 15
  10. ^ a b Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (14th Annual ed.). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference oecd2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  13. ^ "The Chronology of the "Living Fossil" Metasequoia Glyptostroibodes (Taxodiaceae): A Review (1943–2003)" (PDF). Harvard College. 2003. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 1984 In the spring, Metasequoia was chosen as the 'City Tree' of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference torchrelay was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ "Wuhan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d.
  16. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Hubei". China.org.cn. PRC Central Government. Archived from the original on June 19, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  17. ^ a b "Focus on Wuhan, China". The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  18. ^ Zhao Manfeng (赵满丰). "Archived copy" 国家中心城市 [National central cities]. usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "The Wuchang Uprising on Double Ten (10/10/1911) | Britannica Blog". blogs.britannica.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  20. ^ Stephen R. MacKinnon (2002). Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900–1950. University of Hawaii Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0824825188.
  21. ^ "An American in China: 1936–39 A Memoir". Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  22. ^ Stephen R. MacKinnon (2008). Wuhan, 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. University of California Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0520254459.
  23. ^ 武汉获批全国首个交通枢纽研究试点城市. Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012.
  24. ^ Jing, Li (January 23, 2019). "Inside China's leading 'sponge city': Wuhan's war with water". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  25. ^ Hartley, Asit K. Biswas, Kris (September 18, 2017). "China's 'sponge cities' aim to re-use 70% of rainwater". CNN. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  26. ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada (September 8, 2009). "Focus on Wuhan, China". www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  27. ^ 校友会2017中国大学排行榜700强揭晓,北京大学十连冠 – 艾瑞深校友会网2019中国大学排行榜,中国大学研究生院排行榜,中国 – 流大学,中国大学创业富豪榜,中国独立学院排行榜,中国民办大学排行榜. www.cuaa.net. Archived from the original on June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  28. ^ "Leading 200 science cities 2021". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  29. ^ "Wuhan | Creative Cities Network". en.unesco.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  30. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC – Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved August 31, 2020.

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