Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico[a]
Free Associated State of Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (Spanish)
Nickname(s): 
"Isla del Encanto" (Spanish)
('Island of Enchantment')
Motto: 
"Joannes est nomen ejus" (Latin)
('John is his name')
Anthem: "La Borinqueña" (Spanish)
(English: "The Borinquenian")
Location of Puerto Rico
Location of Puerto Rico
Sovereign stateUnited States
Before annexationCaptaincy General of Puerto Rico
Cession from Spain11 April 1899
Current constitution25 July 1952
Capital
and largest city
San Juan
18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450°N 66.100°W / 18.450; -66.100
Official languages
Common languages94.3% Spanish
5.5% English
0.2% other[3]
Ethnic groups
(2020)[4]
By race:
By ethnicity:
Demonym(s)
GovernmentDevolved presidential constitutional dependency
• President
Joe Biden (D)
• Governor
Pedro Pierluisi (PNP/D)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
Senate
House of Representatives
United States Congress
Jenniffer González (PNP/R)
Area
• Total
9,104 km2 (3,515 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.6
Highest elevation
4,390 ft (1,340 m)
Population
• 2020 census
3,285,874[5]
• Density
350.8/km2 (908.6/sq mi) (39th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
$112.273 billion[6] (88th)
• Per capita
$35,943[6] (40th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$100.684 billion[6] (61st)
• Per capita
$32,233[6] (28th)
Gini (2011)53.1[7]
high
HDI (2015)0.845[8]
very high · 40th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (US$) (USD)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (AST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+1 (787), +1 (939)
USPS abbreviation
PR
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.pr

Puerto Rico[b] (Spanish for 'Rich Port'; abbreviated PR; Taino: Boriken, Borinquen),[10] officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico[a] (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit.'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico')[c] is a Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.

The Commonwealth is an archipelago among the Greater Antilles located between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands; it includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. It has roughly 3.2 million residents, and its capital and most populous city is San Juan.[10] Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government,[11] though Spanish predominates.[12]

Originally populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493.[10] It was contested by other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. Spanish rule led to the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, and settlement primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. Within the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.[13][14] By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, centered around a fusion of indigenous, African, and European elements.[15][16] In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico.[10][17]

Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland.[18] However, as residents of an unincorporated territory, American citizens of Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president,[19] and generally do not pay federal income tax.[20][21][Note 1] However, in addition to the other four territories which send non-voting representatives to Congress, they do participate in presidential primaries. As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the U.S. Congress, which governs it under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Puerto Rico is represented federally solely by one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner. The U.S. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens residing on the Island to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.[22][23]

Beginning in the mid 20th century, the U.S. government, together with the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, launched a series of economic projects to develop Puerto Rico into an industrial high-income economy. It is classified by the International Monetary Fund as a developed jurisdiction with an advanced, high-income economy;[24] it ranks 40th on the Human Development Index. The main drivers of Puerto Rico's economy are manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and electronics) followed by the service industry (namely tourism and hospitality).[25]

  1. ^ "7 fam 1120 acquisition of u.s. nationality in u.s. territories and possessions". U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7- Consular Affairs. U.S. Department of State. 3 January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  2. ^ "P. Rico Senate declares Spanish over English as first official language". News Report. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Agencia EFE. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Puerto Rico 2015-2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census. Department of Commerce. 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  4. ^ "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Table 2. Resident Population for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: 2020 Census" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook database: April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  7. ^ "Household Income for States: 2010 and 2011" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  8. ^ Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). "Human Development Index Trends and Inequality in Puerto Rico 2010–2015". Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  9. ^ Amaral, Patrícia & Ana Maria Carvalho (2014). Portuguese-Spanish Interfaces: Diachrony, synchrony, and contact. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 130. ISBN 9789027258007.
  10. ^ a b c d "CIA World Factbook – Puerto Rico". Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  11. ^ Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. 596 (1965). Translation taken from the English text, 92 P.R.R. 580 (1965), pp. 588–89. See also López-Baralt Negrón, Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior: Español: Idioma del proceso judicial, 36, Revista Jurídica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. 396 (1967), and Vientós-Gastón, Informe del Procurador General sobre el idioma, 36 Revista del Colegio de Abogados de PuertO Rico. (P.R.) 843 (1975).
  12. ^ "Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  13. ^ Caban, Pedro A. (2009). Constructing a Colonial People: Puerto Rico and the United States, 1898–1932. Westview Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0786748174.
  14. ^ Santiago-Valles, Kelvin A. (1994). Subject People and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898–1947. SUNY Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0791415894.
  15. ^ Lipski, John M. (2005). A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1107320376.
  16. ^ "Documenting a Puerto Rican Identity | In Search of a National Identity: Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Puerto Rico | Articles and Essays | Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age: Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century Perspectives". Digital Collections, Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  17. ^ José Trías Monge. Puerto Rico: The Trials of the Oldest Colony in the World. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1999. p. 4.
  18. ^ 8 U.S. Code § 1402 – Persons born in Puerto Rico on or after April 11, 1899 (1941) Retrieved: 14 January 2015.
  19. ^ Igartúa–de la Rosa v. United States (Igartúa III) Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 417 F.3d 145 (1st Cir. 2005) (en banc), GREGORIO IGARTÚA, ET AL., Plaintiffs, Appellants, v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ET AL., Defendants, Appellees. No. 09-2186 Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine (24 November 2010)
  20. ^ The trauma of Puerto Rico's 'Maria Generation' . Robin Ortiz. ABC News. 17 February 2019. Accessed 24 September 2019.
  21. ^ PUERTO RICO: Fiscal Relations with the Federal Government and Economic Trends during the Phaseout of the Possessions Tax Credit. General Accounting Office publication number GAO-06-541. US Gen. Acctg. Office, Washington, DC. 19 May 2006. Public Release: 23 June 2006. (Note: All residents of Puerto Rico pay federal taxes, with the exception of federal income taxes which only some residents of Puerto Rico must still pay).
  22. ^ "Puerto Rico's Political Status and the 2012 Plebiscite: Background and Key Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2016 – via fas.org.
  23. ^ "El Nuevo Día". Elnuevodia.com. 18 April 2017.
  24. ^ "Advanced economies". IMF. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Manufactura" (in Spanish). Government of Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.


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