Nederland  (Dutch)
Motto: "Je maintiendrai"  (French)
(English: "I will maintain")
Anthem: "Wilhelmus"  (Dutch)
(English: "William of Nassau")
Location of the European part of the Netherlands (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of the European part of the Netherlands (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Location of the Caribbean municipalities (green)
Location of the Caribbean municipalities (green)
and largest city
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Government seatThe Hague[a]
Official languagesDutch
Ethnic groups
Sovereign stateKingdom of the Netherlands
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Mark Rutte
LegislatureStates General
House of Representatives
Independence from Spain
26 July 1581
30 January 1648
• Kingdom established
16 March 1815
5 May 1945
• Charter
15 December 1954
10 October 2010
• Total
41,865[5][6] km2 (16,164 sq mi) (131st)
• Water (%)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 17,682,000[8] (67th)
• 2011 census
• Density
423/km2 (1,095.6/sq mi) (16th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.055 trillion[10] (27th)
• Per capita
Increase $60,461[10] (11th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.012 trillion[10] (17th)
• Per capita
Increase $58,003[10] (12th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 27.5[11]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.944[12]
very high · 8th
Time zone
• Summer (DST)
Note: Even though the European Netherlands are located within the UTC±0 longitudes, the country adopted UTC+01:00 (Central European Time) as its standard time under German occupation on 2 November 1942, with a +0:40:28 offset (+1:40:28 during DST) from Amsterdam’s LMT (UTC+0:19:32).[14]
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+31, +599[g]
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet, .bq[h]
Location of Netherlands

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (audio speaker iconlisten)), informally Holland,[15][16] is a country located in Western Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean. It is the largest of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.[17][18][19] In Europe, the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces, bordering Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom.[20] In the Caribbean, it consists of the three constituent countries Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, together forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Further special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba.[i] The country's official language is Dutch, with West Frisian as a secondary official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamento as secondary official languages in the Caribbean Netherlands.[1] Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages (spoken in the east and southeast respectively), while Dutch Sign Language, Sinte Romani, and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages.[1][2]

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.[22] Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital,[23] while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court.[24] The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe.[25] Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the European Union, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD, and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centred in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.[26]

Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 m (3.3 ft) above sea level, and nearly 26% falling below sea level.[27] Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century.[28] Colloquially or informally the Netherlands is occasionally referred to by the pars pro toto Holland.[15] In the Republican period, which began in 1588, the Netherlands entered a unique era of political, economic, and cultural greatness, ranked among the most powerful and influential in Europe and the world; this period is known as the Dutch Golden Age.[29] During this time, its trading companies, the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, established colonies and trading posts all over the world.[30][31]

With a population of 17.6 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 km2 (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 km2 (12,900 sq mi)—the Netherlands is the 16th most densely populated country in the world and the second-most densely populated country in the European Union, with a density of 526 people per square kilometre (1,360 people/sq mi). Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products by value, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture, and inventiveness.[32][33][34]

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in 1870, though it was not completely removed until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in 1919, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally.[35] The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indices of press freedom,[36] economic freedom,[37] human development and quality of life, as well as happiness.[38][j] In 2020, it ranked eighth on the human development index and fifth on the 2021 World Happiness Index.[40][41]
Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ a b c d "Welke erkende talen heeft Nederland?" (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid. 11 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Besluit van 24 juni 2021 tot vaststelling van het tijdstip van inwerkingtreding van de Wet erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal" (PDF). Staatsblad van Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. 2021. ISSN 0920-2064. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  3. ^ "CBS Statline". Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  4. ^ CBS (18 December 2020). "Meerderheid Nederlandse bevolking behoort niet tot religieuze groep". (in Dutch). Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  5. ^ "Oppervlakte".
  6. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (19 May 2015). "Waaruit bestaat het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden? –". onderwerpen.
  7. ^ "CIA factbook Netherlands". CIA. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Bevolkingsteller". Statistics Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  9. ^ "Dutch Census 2011 Analysis and Methodology" (PDF). Statistics Netherlands. 19 November 2014. p. 9. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d "Netherlands". International Monetary Fund. April 2021.
  11. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  12. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Wet geldstelsel BES". Dutch government. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Amsterdam, Netherlands". Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  15. ^ a b "Netherlands vs. Holland". Netherlands Bureau for Tourism and Congresses. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  16. ^ "Holland". WorldAtlas. 13 April 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" [Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands]. Government of the Netherlands (in Dutch). 17 November 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  18. ^ "What are the different parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands?". Government of the Netherlands. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Living in the EU". European Union. 12 January 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Netherlands boundaries in the North Sea". Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  21. ^ "Maritime boundaries of the Caribbean part of the Kingdom". Ministry of Defence. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  22. ^ "Gemeentegrootte en stedelijkheid" (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  23. ^ Dutch Wikisource. "Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" [Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands] (in Dutch). Chapter 2, Article 32. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ... de hoofdstad Amsterdam ...
  24. ^ Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the UN. "General Information". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  25. ^ "Rotterdam: the largest freight port in the EU", European Commission, 2 April 2020, retrieved 25 November 2021
  26. ^ van Krieken, Peter J.; David McKay (2005). The Hague: Legal Capital of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-90-6704-185-0., specifically, "In the 1990s, during his term as United Nations Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali started calling The Hague the world's legal capital."
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ How it Works: Science and Technology. Marshall Cavendish. 2003. p. 1208. ISBN 978-0-7614-7323-7.
  29. ^ "Netherlands - Dutch civilization in the Golden Age (1609–1713)". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  30. ^ "Dutch Republic | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  31. ^ "HISTORY OF THE DUTCH EMPIRE". Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  32. ^ "Netherlands: Agricultural exports top 80 billion Euros". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  33. ^ (RVO), Netherlands Enterprise Agency (17 July 2015). "Agriculture and food". Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  34. ^ "How the Netherlands Feeds the World". National Geographic Society. September 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  35. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  36. ^ "2016 World Press Freedom Index – RSF". 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  37. ^ "Netherlands". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Index of Economic Freedom.
  38. ^ Helliwell, John; Layard, Richard; Sachs, Jeffrey (20 March 2017). World Happiness Report 2017 (PDF). United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network. ISBN 978-0-9968513-5-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  39. ^ "2016 World Happiness Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  40. ^ Human Development Report 2021 (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme. 2021. p. 24. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  41. ^ "World Happiness Report". Retrieved 28 April 2021.

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