Odisha

Odisha
The sun temple at konark.jpg
Habalikhati Beach at Bhitarkanika.jpg
Gundichaghagi Waterfall, Keonjhar During monsoons.png
Mukteswar.JPG
Shri Jagannatha Temple.jpg
Sunrise at Bhitarakanika.jpg
1 Mahanadi River near Satkosia Tiger Reserve Tikarpara India 2012.jpg
BuddhaStupaDhauliGiri.jpg
Rajarani Temple 2.jpg
Chilika lake puri.jpg
Anthem: Bande Utkala Janani
(I Adore Thee, O Mother Utkala!)
Location of Odisha
Coordinates (Bhubaneswar): 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82Coordinates: 20°16′N 85°49′E / 20.27°N 85.82°E / 20.27; 85.82
Country India
Statehood1 April 1936
(Odisha Day)
Capital and
Largest city
Bhubaneswar[2]
Districts30
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Odisha
 • GovernorGaneshi Lal
 • Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik
 • LegislatureUnicameral (147 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyLok Sabha (21 seats)
Rajya Sabha (10 seats)
 • High CourtOrissa High Court
Area
 • Total155,707 km2 (60,119 sq mi)
Area rank8th
Population
 (2011)
 • Total41,974,218[1]
 • Rank11th
Demonym(s)Odia
GDP (2019–20)
 • Total533,822 crore (US$71 billion)
 • Per capita116,614 (US$1,500)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-OR
HDI (2018)Increase 0.606[4]
medium · 32nd
Literacy73.45%[5]
Official languageOdia[6]
Websitewww.odisha.gov.in
Symbols of Odisha
EmblemEmblem of Odisha
SongBande Utkala Janani
Dance
Odissi Performance DS.jpg
Odissi
Mammal
Sambhar deer.jpg
Sambar[7]
Bird
Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis) Photograph by Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg
Indian roller[8][9]
Fish
Tor tor - Hamilton. Illustration by Haludar.jpg
Mahanadi mahseer[10]
Flower
Sita-Ashok (Saraca asoca) flowers in Kolkata W IMG 4146.jpg
Ashoka[7]
Tree
Ficus religiosa Bo.jpg
Sacred Fig[7][11]
Food
Pakhala bhat.jpg
Pakhala
Sweet
Rasgullas.JPG
Rasagola

Odisha (English: /əˈdɪsə/,[12] Odia: [oɽiˈsa] (About this soundlisten)), formerly Orissa (/ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, -/[13]), is an Indian state located in Eastern India. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.[14] It neighbours the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the south, and a very negligible border with Telangana to the southwest. Odisha has a coastline of 485 kilometres (301 mi) along the Bay of Bengal.[15] The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".[16] The language of Odisha is Odia, which is one of the Classical Languages of India.[17]

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (which was again won back from them by king Kharavela) in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.[18] The modern boundaries of Odisha were demarcated by the British Indian government when Orissa Province was established on 1 April 1936, consisting of the Odia-speaking districts of Bihar and Orissa Province.[18] The first of April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.[19] Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,[20] after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.[21]

The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with 5.33 lakh crore (US$71 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 116,614 (US$1,500).[3] Odisha ranks 32nd among Indian states in Human Development Index.[22]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference CensusIndia2011PCA12018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Odisha Budget analysis". PRS India. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  5. ^ "State of Literacy" (PDF). Census of India. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  6. ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Blue Jay (PDF), Orissa Review, 2005, p. 87
  8. ^ "Palapitta: How a mindless dasara ritual is killing our state bird palapitta – Hyderabad News". The Times of India. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  9. ^ Blue Jay (PDF), Orissa Review, 2005
  10. ^ "State Fishes of India" (PDF). National Fisheries Development Board, Government of India. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  11. ^ Pipal(Ficus religiosa) – The State Tree of Odisha (PDF), RPRC, 2014
  12. ^ "Odisha". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d.
  13. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Roach, Peter; Hartmann, James; Setter, Jane (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-12-539683-2.
  14. ^ "ST & SC Development, Minorities & Backward Classes Welfare Department:: Government of Odisha". stscodisha.gov.in. Archived from the original on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  15. ^ "Coastal security". Odisha Police. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  16. ^ "The National Anthem of India" (PDF). Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Cabinet approved Odia as Classical Language". 21 February 2014.
  18. ^ a b "Detail History of Orissa". Government of Odisha. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006.
  19. ^ "Utkala Dibasa hails colours, flavours of Odisha". The Times of India. 2 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  20. ^ Rabindra Nath Chakraborty (1985). National Integration in Historical Perspective: A Cultural Regeneration in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 17–. GGKEY:CNFHULBK119. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
  21. ^ Ravi Kalia (1994). Bhubaneswar: From a Temple Town to a Capital City. SIU Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8093-1876-6. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  22. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.

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