Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
City of Philadelphia
Official seal of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Official logo of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Etymology: Ancient Greek: φίλος phílos (beloved, dear) and ἀδελφός adelphós (brother, brotherly)
"Philly", "The City of Brotherly Love", "The Athens of America",[1] and other nicknames of Philadelphia
"Philadelphia maneto" ("Let brotherly love endure" or "... continue")[2][3]
Location within Pennsylvania
Location within Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is located in the United States
Location within United States
Philadelphia is located in North America
Philadelphia (North America)
Coordinates: 39°57′10″N 75°09′49″W / 39.95278°N 75.16361°W / 39.95278; -75.16361Coordinates: 39°57′10″N 75°09′49″W / 39.95278°N 75.16361°W / 39.95278; -75.16361
Country United States
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic colonyKingdom of Great Britain Province of Pennsylvania
IncorporatedOctober 25, 1701
Founded byWilliam Penn
 • TypeMayor–council, consolidated city-county
 • BodyPhiladelphia City Council
 • MayorJim Kenney (D)
 • Consolidated city-county142.70 sq mi (369.59 km2)
 • Land134.28 sq mi (347.78 km2)
 • Water8.42 sq mi (21.81 km2)
39 ft (12 m)
 • Consolidated city-county1,526,006
 • Estimate 
 • RankUS city: 6th
 • Density11,796.81/sq mi (4,554.76/km2)
 • Metro
6,096,120 (US: 8th)[6]
 • CSA
7,206,807 (US: 8th)[7]
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
19092–19093, 19099, 191xx
Area codes215, 267, 445
FIPS code42-60000
GNIS feature ID1215531[10]
Major airportPhiladelphia International Airport
InterstatesI-76.svg I-95.svg I-676.svg
U.S. RoutesUS 1.svg US 13.svg US 30.svg
Commuter railSEPTA Regional Rail, NJ Transit
Rapid transitBroad Street Line, Market–Frankford Line, PATCO Speedline

Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population of 1,584,064.[8] It is also the second-most populous city in the Northeastern United States, behind New York City. Since 1854, the city has had the same geographic boundaries as Philadelphia County, the most-populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017.[6] Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural center of the greater Delaware Valley along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill rivers within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's 2019 estimated population of 7.21 million makes it the ninth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.[7]

Philadelphia is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony.[4][11] Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, and the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, and the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until being overtaken by New York City in 1790; the city was also one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, serving as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C. was under construction. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Philadelphia became a major industrial center and a railroad hub. The city grew due to an influx of European immigrants, most of whom initially came from Ireland and Germany—the two largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. Later immigrant groups in the 20th century came from Italy (Italian being the third largest European ethnic ancestry currently reported in Philadelphia) and other Southern European and Eastern European countries.[12] In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War.[13] Puerto Ricans began moving to the city in large numbers in the period between World War I and II, and in even greater numbers in the post-war period.[14] The city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950.

The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub.[15][16] As of 2019, the Philadelphia metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $490 billion.[17] Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016,[18] including several nationally prominent skyscrapers.[19] Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city.[20][21] Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.[22] The city is known for its arts, culture, cuisine, and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent $6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania.[23] Philadelphia has also emerged as a biotechnology hub.[24]

Philadelphia is the home of many U.S. firsts, including the first library (1731),[25] hospital (1751),[25] medical school (1765),[26] national capital (1774),[27] stock exchange (1790),[25] zoo (1874),[28] and business school (1881).[29] Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.[30] The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015,[31] as the first World Heritage City in the United States.[16]

  1. ^ "Art & Artifacts: Discover the Library Company's Art and Artifact Collection – Athens of America". The Library Company of Philadelphia. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
  2. ^ Robinson, Sam (November 5, 2013). "Behind Philadelphia Maneto: Dissecting The City Seal". Hidden City Philadelphia. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  3. ^ McDevitt, John (May 5, 2015). "Plaque Dedication Marks 120th Anniversary of Creation of Philadelphia’s Flag". CBS Broadcasting Inc. Retrieved January 18, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference weigley was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2016 to July 1, 2017 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico; 2017 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2018. Archived from the original on March 24, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – United States – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico; 2017 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2018.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ a b "QuickFacts Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  10. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. February 2, 2015. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  11. ^ Brookes, Karin (2005). Zoë Ross (ed.). Insight Guides: Philadelphia and Surroundings (Second (Updated) ed.). APA Publications. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-58573-026-2.
  12. ^ "American FactFinder – People Reporting Ancestry". U.S. Census Bureau. 2015. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved April 26, 2017. Click on 'Add/Remove Geographies', enter 'Philadelphia', select city or county (same result either way), click on 'Show Table'.
  13. ^ Great Migration – Black History –,, retrieved April 9, 2017
  14. ^ The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives, by Carmen Whalen and Víctor Vázquez-Hernández, Temple University Press, 2008, p. 90-91.
  15. ^ Tucker, Laura (November 25, 2014). "Philadelphia". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  16. ^ a b Sisak, Michael A. (November 6, 2015). "Philadelphia Becomes First World Heritage City in US". ABC News Internet Ventures. Archived from the original on November 8, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  17. ^ "U.S. metro areas – ranked by Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) 2019 | Statistic". Statista. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  18. ^ "Philadelphia PA". CrediFi. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  19. ^ "Philadelphia's Newest Skyscraper: The Comcast Innovation and Technology Center". Visit Philadelphia. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
  20. ^ "Gateway to Public Art in Philadelphia". Fairmount Park Art Association. August 10, 2011. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2017. according to the Smithsonian Institution, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculpture than any other city in the country [Save Outdoor Sculpture! program].
  21. ^ "Mural Arts Philadelphia – Press kit" (PDF). Mural Arts Philadelphia. Retrieved December 6, 2017. Mural Arts Philadelphia is the nation’s largest public art program...creating nearly 4,000 artworks that have transformed public spaces.
  22. ^ "2014 City Park Facts" (PDF). The Trust for Public Land. pp. 9, 25, 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 20, 2016. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  23. ^ "Visit Philadelphia 2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Visit Philadelphia. p. 6. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  24. ^ Amy He (June 17, 2017). "Chinese company helps boost Philadelphia as biotech sector". China Daily. Retrieved December 10, 2017.
  25. ^ a b c "Philadelphia Firsts 1681–1899". USHistory. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  26. ^ "John Morgan (1735–1789)". Penn in the 18th Century. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008.
  27. ^ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  28. ^ "About the Philadelphia Zoo". Philadelphia Zoo. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  29. ^ "About Wharton". The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  30. ^ "Independence Hall". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  31. ^ "Philadelphia's new branding as World Heritage City" Archived March 6, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Organization of World Heritage Cities. Retrieved March 5, 2018.

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