Mixed martial arts

Mixed martial arts
UFC 131 Carwin vs. JDS.jpg
Highest governing bodyInternational Mixed Martial Arts Federation
ContactFull contact
Mixed genderYes, separate male and female events
VenueOctagon, Cage, MMA Ring
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Preview warning: Page using Template:Infobox sport with unknown parameter "Origins"

Mixed martial arts (MMA), sometimes referred to as cage fighting,[1] no holds barred (NHB),[2] and ultimate fighting,[3] is a full-contact combat sport based on striking, grappling and ground fighting, incorporating techniques from various combat sports including boxing, kickboxing and martial arts from around the world.[4] The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993.[5] The question of who actually coined the term is subject to debate.[6]

During the early 20th century, various interstylistic contests took place throughout Japan and in the countries of the Four Asian Tigers. In Brazil, there was the sport of Vale Tudo, in which fighters from various styles fought with little to no rules. The Gracie family was known to promote Vale Tudo matches as a way to promote their own Brazilian jiu-jitsu style.[7] In the West, the concept of combining elements of multiple martial arts was popularized by Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s. A precursor to modern MMA was the 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki exhibition bout (which ended in a draw after 15 rounds), fought between boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki in Japan, where it later inspired the foundation of Pancrase in 1993 and Pride Fighting Championships in 1997.

In 1980, CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, called Tough Guy Contest, which was later renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport.[8][9] In 1993, the Gracie family brought Brazilian jiu-jitsu, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) MMA promotion company in 1993. The company held an event with almost no rules, mostly due to the influence of Art Davie and Rorion Gracie attempting to replicate Vale Tudo fights that existed in Brazil[7] and would later implement a different set of rules (example: eliminating kicking a grounded opponent), which differed from other leagues which were more in favour of realistic fights.[10]

Originally promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with relatively few rules.[11] Later, individual fighters incorporated multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport.[3] Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling.[12]

  1. ^ Zand, Benjamin (April 5, 2016). "Inside the UK's white-collar cage fighting scene". BBC. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  2. ^ Bateman, Oliver Lee (July 6, 2018). "The Early Years of MMA Were a 'No-Holds-Barred Freakshow' That Couldn't Be More Different From Today". Medium. Retrieved April 14, 2021.
  3. ^ a b McFarland, Matt (May 6, 2008). "Ultimate Fighting wants to come to NY". WNYT.com. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
  4. ^ "Mixed martial arts".
  5. ^ Rosenberg, Howard (November 15, 1993). "'Ultimate' Fight Lives Up to Name". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference KirikJenness was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b Grant, T.P. "History of Jiu-Jitsu: Coming to America and the Birth of the UFC". Bleacher Report. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference NashJohn was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference WernerSam was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Sonmez, Can. "UFC 1: The Beginning". Mixed Martial Arts.com. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  11. ^ Plotz, David (November 16, 1997). "Fight Clubbed". Slate. Archived from the original on December 31, 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  12. ^ Trembow, Ivan (March 1, 2007). "UFC PPV Revenue Tops $200 Million in 2006". MMA Weekly. Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.

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