Canada

Coordinates: 60°N 110°W / 60°N 110°W / 60; -110

Canada

Motto: A mari usque ad mare (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem: "O Canada"

A projection of North America with Canada highlighted in green
CapitalOttawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2016)[2]
List of ethnicities
Religion
(2011)[3]
List of religions
Demonym(s)Canadian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[4]
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
vacant
Richard Wagner
Justin Trudeau
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence 
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
Area
• Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
11.76 (as of 2015)[5]
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
Population
• Q1 2021 estimate
Neutral increase 38,048,738[6] (38th)
• 2016 census
35,151,728[7]
• Density
3.92/km2 (10.2/sq mi) (185th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.979 trillion[8] (15th)
• Per capita
Increase $51,713[8] (20th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.883 trillion[8] (9th)
• Per capita
Increase $49,222[8] (18th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 31.0[9]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.929[10]
very high · 16th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[11]
Driving sideright
Calling code+1
Internet TLD.ca

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Various Indigenous peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British Parliament.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister—who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons—and is appointed by the governor general, representing the monarch, who serves as head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

A highly developed country, Canada has the seventeenth-highest nominal per-capita income globally and the sixteenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the Organization of American States.

  1. ^ "Royal Anthem". Government of Canada. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  2. ^ "2016 Census of Population—Ethnic Origin, Catalog no. 98-400-X2016187". Statistics Canada. October 25, 2017. Archived from the original on October 26, 2017.
  3. ^ "2011 National Household Survey". Statistics Canada. May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013.
  4. ^ Dowding, Keith; Dumont, Patrick (2014). The Selection of Ministers around the World. Taylor & Francis. p. 395. ISBN 978-1-317-63444-7.
  5. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  6. ^ "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  7. ^ "Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  9. ^ "Income inequality". OECD. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  11. ^ The Government of Canada and Standards Council of Canada prescribe ISO 8601 as the country's official all-numeric date format: Public Works and Government Services Canada Translation Bureau (1997). "5.14: Dates". The Canadian style: A guide to writing and editing (Revised ed.). Dundurn Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-55002-276-6. The dd/mm/yy and mm/dd/yy formats also remain in common use; see Date and time notation in Canada.

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