Boston

Boston
State capital of Massachusetts
City of Boston
Downtown Boston from the Boston Harbor
Brick rowhouses along Acorn Street
Old State House
Massachusetts State House
Fenway Park ballgame at night
Boston skyline from Charles River
From top, left to right: Downtown (from the Boston Harbor); Acorn Street in Beacon Hill; Old State House; Massachusetts State House; Fenway Park ballgame; Back Bay (from the Charles River)
Official seal of Boston
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Motto(s): 
Sicut patribus sit Deus nobis (Latin)
'As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us'
Interactive map outlining Boston
Boston is located in the United States
Boston
Boston
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35806°N 71.06361°W / 42.35806; -71.06361
CountryUnited States
RegionNew England
StateMassachusetts
CountySuffolk
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Commonwealth of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic coloniesMassachusetts Bay Colony, Dominion of New England, Province of Massachusetts Bay
Settled (town)
September 7, 1630
(date of naming, Old Style)[a]
Incorporated (city)March 19, 1822
Named forBoston, Lincolnshire
Government
 • TypeStrong mayor / Council
 • MayorKim Janey (D)
 • CouncilBoston City Council
Area
 • State capital of Massachusetts89.62 sq mi (232.11 km2)
 • Land48.34 sq mi (125.20 km2)
 • Water41.28 sq mi (106.91 km2)
 • Urban
1,770 sq mi (4,600 km2)
 • Metro
4,500 sq mi (11,700 km2)
 • CSA10,600 sq mi (27,600 km2)
Elevation
141 ft (43 m)
Population
 • State capital of Massachusetts617,594
 • Estimate 
(2019)[8]
692,600
 • Density14,327.68/sq mi (5,531.93/km2)
 • Urban
4,180,000 (US: 10th)
 • Metro
4,628,910 (US: 10th)[2]
 • CSA
8,041,303 (US: 6th)
 • Demonym
Bostonian
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
53 ZIP Codes[9]
  • 02108–02137, 02163, 02196, 02199, 02201, 02203–02206, 02210–02212, 02215, 02217, 02222, 02126, 02228, 02241, 02266, 02283–02284, 02293, 02295, 02297–02298, 02467 (also includes parts of Newton and Brookline)
Area codes617 and 857
FIPS code25-07000
GNIS feature ID617565
Primary AirportLogan International Airport
InterstatesI-90.svg I-93.svg
Commuter RailMBTA Commuter Rail
Rapid TransitMBTA subway
WebsiteBoston.gov

Boston (US: /ˈbɔːstən/, UK: /ˈbɒstən/),[10] officially the City of Boston, is the capital and most populous city[3] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st most populous city in the country.[4] The city proper covers 48.4 square miles (125 km2)[11] with an estimated population of 692,600 in 2019,[4] also making it the most populous city in New England.[3] It is the seat of Suffolk County (although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999).[12] The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country.[13] A broader combined statistical area (CSA), corresponding to the commuting area and including Providence, Rhode Island, is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.[14]

Boston is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from the English town of the same name.[15][16] It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill and the siege of Boston. Upon American independence from Great Britain, the city continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.[17][18] The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.[19] Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park (Boston Common, 1634), first public or state school (Boston Latin School, 1635)[20] and first subway system (Tremont Street subway, 1897).[21]

Today, Boston is a thriving center of scientific research. The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it a world leader in higher education,[22] including law, medicine, engineering and business, and the city is considered to be a global pioneer in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 5,000 startups.[23][24][25] Boston's economic base also includes finance,[26] professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology and government activities.[27] Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States;[28] businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and investment.[29] The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States[30][31] as it has undergone gentrification,[32] though it remains high on world livability rankings.[33]
Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  2. ^ Thomas, G. Scott. "Boston's population stays flat, but still ranks as 10th-largest in U.S (BBJ DataCenter)". bizjournals.com. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c "QuickFacts: Boston, Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  5. ^ "Alphabetically sorted list of Census 2000 Urbanized Areas". United States Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original (TXT) on June 13, 2002. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  6. ^ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (CBSA-EST2011-01)". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original (CSV) on April 27, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  7. ^ "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (CBSA-EST2011-02)". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original (CSV) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  9. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup – Search By City". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  10. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  11. ^ http://www.bostonplans.org/getattachment/86dd4b02-a7f3-499e-874e-53b7e8be4770#:~:text=%E2%80%94%20With%20a%20land%20area%20of,up%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Massachusetts.
  12. ^ "List of intact or abandoned Massachusetts county governments". sec.state.ma.us. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  13. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  14. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  15. ^ Banner, David. "Boston History – The History of Boston, Massachusetts". SearchBoston. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  16. ^ Kennedy 1994, pp. 11–12.
  17. ^ "About Boston". City of Boston. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  18. ^ Morris 2005, p. 8.
  19. ^ "Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Destinations in America". The Travelers Zone. May 10, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  20. ^ "BPS at a Glance". Boston Public Schools. March 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
  21. ^ Hull 2011, p. 42.
  22. ^ "World Reputation Rankings". April 21, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  23. ^ "Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  24. ^ Kirsner, Scott (July 20, 2010). "Boston is #1 ... But will we hold on to the top spot? – Innovation Economy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  25. ^ Innovation that Matters 2016 (Report). US Chamber of Commerce. 2016.
  26. ^ [1] Accessed October 7, 2018.
  27. ^ "The Boston Economy in 2010" (PDF). Boston Redevelopment Authority. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  28. ^ "Transfer of Wealth in Boston" (PDF). The Boston Foundation. March 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  29. ^ "Boston Ranked Most Energy-Efficient City in the United States". City Government of Boston. September 18, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  30. ^ "In the wake of the Ghost Ship fire, examining Oakland's 'staggering' rent hikes". December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  31. ^ Heudorfer, Bonnie; Bluestone, Barry. "The Greater Boston Housing Report Card" (PDF). Center for Urban and Regional Policy (CURP), Northeastern University. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  32. ^ Tom Acitelli (December 7, 2016). "Which Boston neighborhoods will gentrify next?". Vox Media. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  33. ^ "Quality of Living global city rankings 2010 – Mercer survey". Mercer. May 26, 2010. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2011.

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