Austria

Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333

Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich (German)
Anthem: Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich
"National Anthem of the Republic of Austria"
Location of Austria (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Austria (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vienna
48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350
Official and national languageAustrian German[a][b]
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
(2012)
Religion
(2018[4])
Demonym(s)Austrian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Karl Nehammer
LegislatureParliament
Federal Council
National Council
Formation
• Name
1 November 996
• Duchy
17 September 1156
• Archduchy
6 January 1453
• Empire
11 August 1804
30 March 1867
12 November 1918
10 September 1919
1 May 1934
• Anschluss
12 March 1938
27 April 1945
27 July 1955
Area
• Total
83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
0.84 (as of 2015)[5]
Population
• October 2020 estimate
Neutral increase 8,935,112[6] (98th)
• Density
106/km2 (274.5/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$461.432 billion[7]
• Per capita
$51,936[7] (17th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$446,315 billion[7] (27th)
• Per capita
$50,277[7] (15th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 27.0[8]
low
HDI (2019)Increase 0.922[9]
very high · 18th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT
Internet TLD.at

Austria,[c] officially the Republic of Austria,[d] is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, located on the Eastern Alps. It is composed of nine federated states, one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and largest city. Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people. While Austrian German is the country's official language,[11] many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects.[12]

Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation, but pursued its own course independently of the other German states following its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1867, in compromise with Hungary, the Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy was established.

Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of union with Germany, but the Allied Powers did not support the new state and it remained unrecognised. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.[13]

The Second Republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and[14] joined the European Union in 1995.[15] It plays host to the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol.[16] Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995,[17] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[18]
Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Die verschiedenen Amtssprachen in Österreich". DemokratieWEBstatt.at. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  2. ^ "Regional Languages of Austria". Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Kommission für Migrations und Integrationsforschung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften" [Commission for Migration and Integration Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences] (PDF). Statistik Austria. 2012. p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  4. ^ "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Population by Year-/Quarter-beginning". 7 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "Austria". International Monetary Fund. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  8. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  9. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2
  11. ^ "Austria". Encyclopædia Britannica. 31 May 2009. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  12. ^ "Die Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland" (PDF). Statistik Austria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  13. ^ "Lebensqualität - Wien ist und bleibt Nummer eins". Stadt Wein (in German). Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  14. ^ Jelavich 267
  15. ^ "Austria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  16. ^ "Austria About". OECD. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  17. ^ "Austria joins Schengen". Migration News. May 1995. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  18. ^ "Austria and the euro". European Commission - European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.

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