Julien Do parkour in park.jpg
Julien Vigroux performing parkour in a park
Also known asPK[1][2][3]
FocusObstacle passing
Country of originFrance
CreatorDavid Belle
Ancestor artsAsian martial arts, athletics, gymnastics, obstacle courses
Descendant artsFreerunning
Olympic sportNo

Parkour (French: [paʁkuʁ]) is a training discipline where practitioners (called traceurs) move from one place to another in a complex environment, without assisting equipment and in the fastest and most efficient way possible. With roots in military obstacle course training and martial arts, parkour includes running, climbing, swinging, vaulting, jumping, plyometrics, rolling, and quadrupedal movement—whatever is suitable for the situation.[4][5]

Parkour is an activity that can be practiced alone or with others, and is usually carried out in urban spaces, though it can be done anywhere.[6][7] It involves seeing one's environment in a new way, and envisioning the potential for navigating it by movement around, across, through, over and under its features.[8][9]

Parkour as a type of movement was established by David Belle in France in 1988.[10][11] However, the practice of similar movements in communities around the world brings into question the relevance of such an attribution.[12] The discipline was popularised in the late 1990s and 2000s through films, documentaries, video games, and advertisements.[12][13][14]

  1. ^ "Actor David Belle Biography". David Belle. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  2. ^ "3RUN Story". 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  3. ^ "About the Tapp Brothers". Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ferrari, Matthew (7 May 2010). "From 'Play to Display': Parkour as Media-Mimetics or Nature Reclamation?". FlowTV, vol 11, lokaliseret den 01-04-2011 på.
  5. ^ De Feitas, Elizabeth (2011). "Parkour and the Built Environment: Spatial Practices and the Plasticity of School Buildings". Journal of Curriculum Theorizing. 27 (3): 209.
  6. ^ Rawlinson, Christopher; Guaralda, Mirko (11 September 2012). "Chaos and creativity of play: designing emotional engagement in public spaces". In Out of Control: 8th International Conference on Design and Emotion. Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design, London. ISBN 9780957071926. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  7. ^ Brunner, C. (2010). "Nice-looking obstacles: Parkour as urban practice of deterritorialization" (PDF). AI & Society. 26 (2): 143–152. doi:10.1007/s00146-010-0294-2. S2CID 11017425.
  8. ^ Rawlinson, Christopher; Guaralda, Mirko (27 April 2011), "Play in the city: Parkour and architecture", The First International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, ISBN 9780980582741, retrieved 16 March 2013
  9. ^ Ameel, L.; Tani, S. (2012). "Everyday aesthetics in action: Parkour Eyes and the beauty of concrete walls". Emotion, Space and Society. 5 (3): 164–173. doi:10.1016/j.emospa.2011.09.003.
  10. ^ "Parkour History". Parkour Generations. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  11. ^ "Interview with David Belle". YouTube. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  12. ^ a b Angel, pp. 17–20
  13. ^ Belle, David (2006). "Entrevista com David Belle (OSRAM 2006)" [Interview with David Belle (OSRAM 2006)] (Interview). Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  14. ^ Atkinson, M. (2009). "Parkour, Anarcho-Environmentalism, and Poiesis". Journal of Sport & Social Issues. 33 (2): 169–194. doi:10.1177/0193723509332582. S2CID 146783270.

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