Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping
习近平
Head shot of Xi Jinping in 2019. He is wearing a black suit jacket, white shirt and a blue necktie.
Xi in 2016
General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party
Assumed office
15 November 2012
Preceded byHu Jintao
President of the People's Republic of China
Assumed office
14 March 2013
PremierLi Keqiang
Vice President
Preceded byHu Jintao
Chairman of the Central Military Commission
Assumed office
  • Party Commission:
    15 November 2012
  • State Commission:
    14 March 2013
Deputy
Preceded byHu Jintao
First Secretary of Secretariat of the Chinese Communist Party
In office
22 October 2007 – 15 November 2012
General SecretaryHu Jintao
Preceded byZeng Qinghong
Succeeded byLiu Yunshan
Vice President of the People's Republic of China
In office
15 March 2008 – 14 March 2013
PresidentHu Jintao
Preceded byZeng Qinghong
Succeeded byLi Yuanchao
Personal details
Born (1953-06-15) 15 June 1953 (age 68)
Beijing, People's Republic of China
Political partyCommunist Party of China (1974-present)[1]
Spouse(s)
ChildrenXi Mingze
Parents
Relatives
ResidenceZhongnanhai
EducationTsinghua University (BE, LLD)[note 1]
Signature
Military service
Allegiance People's Republic of China
Branch/servicePeople's Liberation Army Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg People's Liberation Army
Years of service1979–1982
UnitGeneral Office of the Central Military Commission (1979–1982, as a secretary of Defense Minister Geng Biao)
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese习近平
Traditional Chinese習近平
Central institution membership
  • 2007–: 17th, 18th, 19th Politburo Standing Committee
  • 2007–: 17th, 18th, 19th Politburo
  • 2007–2012: Secretary (first-ranked), 17th Central Secretariat
  • 2002–: Full member, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th Central Committee
  • 1997–2002: Alternate member, 15th Central Committee
  • 1998–: Delegate, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th National People's Congress

Leading Groups and Commissions

Other offices held

Paramount Leader of
the People's Republic of China

Xi Jinping (English: /ʃi ɪn pɪŋ/ SHEE JIN PING; simplified Chinese: 习近平; traditional Chinese: 習近平; pinyin: Xí Jìnpíng, [ɕǐ tɕîn pʰǐŋ]; born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician who has been serving as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) since 2012, and President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 2013. Xi has been the paramount leader of China, the most prominent political leader in China, since 2012.

The son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, and lived in a Yaodong in the village of Liangjiahe, where he joined the CCP and worked as the party secretary. After studying chemical engineering at Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was Governor of Fujian from 1999 to 2002, before becoming Governor and Party Secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang from 2002 to 2007. Following the dismissal of the Party Secretary of Shanghai, Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to replace him for a brief period in 2007. He subsequently joined the Politburo Standing Committee of the CCP and served as first secretary of the Central Secretariat in October 2007. In 2008 he was designated as Hu Jintao's presumed successor as paramount leader; to that end, Xi was appointed Vice President of the People's Republic of China and Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission. He officially received the title of "leadership core" from the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 2016. Xi has also been a member of the 17th, 18th, 19th CCP Politburo Standing Committee since 2007. In 2018, he abolished presidential term limits.

Xi is the first CCP General Secretary born after the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to impose internal unity. His anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including a member of the Politburo Standing Committee. He has also enacted or promoted a more assertive foreign policy, particularly with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, and its advocacy for free trade and globalization. He has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the Belt and Road Initiative.

Xi has often been described as a dictator or an authoritarian leader by political and academic observers,[9] citing an increase of censorship and mass surveillance, a deterioration in human rights, the cult of personality developing around him[10] and the removal of term limits for the leadership under his tenure.[a] Xi's political thoughts have been incorporated into the party and national constitutions.[25][26][27] As the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has significantly centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, and the internet.[28]

  1. ^ https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/china_20180318_xi_jinping_profile.pdf
  2. ^ "Association for Conversation of Hong Kong Indigenous Languages Online Dictionary". hkilang.org. 1 July 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  3. ^ Brady, Anne-Marie (2015). "China's Foreign Propaganda Machine". Journal of Democracy. 26 (4): 51–59. doi:10.1353/jod.2015.0056. ISSN 1086-3214. S2CID 146531927.
  4. ^ Amako, Satoshi (2 January 2018). "China's authoritarian path to development: is democratization possible?, by Liang Tang, Abingdon, Routledge, 2017, 263pp., ISBN: 978-1-138-01647-7". Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies. 7 (1): 81–83. doi:10.1080/24761028.2018.1483700. ISSN 2476-1028.
  5. ^ Tung, Hans H. (2019). Economic Growth and Endogenous Authoritarian Institutions in Post-Reform China. Palgrave Macmillan.
  6. ^ Howell, Jude; Pringle, Tim (2019). "Shades of Authoritarianism and State–Labour Relations in China" (PDF). British Journal of Industrial Relations. 57 (2): 223–246. doi:10.1111/bjir.12436. ISSN 1467-8543. S2CID 158485609.
  7. ^ Düben, Björn Alexander (3 March 2020). "Xi Jinping and the End of Chinese Exceptionalism". Problems of Post-Communism. 67 (2): 111–128. doi:10.1080/10758216.2018.1535274. ISSN 1075-8216. S2CID 158657283.
  8. ^ Tung, Hans H. (2019). Economic Growth and Endogenous Authoritarian Institutions in Post-Reform China. Palgrave Macmillan.
  9. ^ [3][4][5][6][7][8]
  10. ^ Seib, Gerald F. (12 July 2021). "Cuba's Unrest Frames World's Big Struggle: Dictators vs. Democracies". Wall Street Journal. In China, President Xi Jinping has been running the show for a mere nine years, yet he has developed a cult of personality and engineered a removal of term limits, thereby allowing him to become ruler for life.
  11. ^ Phillips, Tom (26 February 2018). "'Dictator for life': Xi Jinping's power grab condemned as step towards tyranny". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  12. ^ Anderlini, Jamil (11 October 2017). "Under Xi Jinping, China is turning back to dictatorship". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  13. ^ Radchenko, Sergey (5 March 2018). "Dictatorship nearly destroyed China once. Will it do so again?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  14. ^ Carrico, Kevin (2 April 2018). "A deepening dictatorship promises a grim future for China". East Asia Forum. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  15. ^ Stelzer, Irwin (4 March 2018). "Emasculate America: The dictator's plan for world domination". The Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Kim Jong Un entertains Xi Jinping at home". The Economist. 21 June 2019. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 17 August 2019. It was Mr Xi’s first visit to North Korea since he and Mr Kim took the helm of their respective countries... It is not known what precisely the two dictators discussed once they retired to a guest house for talks.
  17. ^ Mair, Victor H. (28 February 2018). "China's war on words show Xi Jinping is a dictator for life | Opinion". Newsweek. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  18. ^ Hein, Matthias (26 February 2018). "Opinion: Xi Jinping – Today's chairman, tomorrow's dictator?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  19. ^ Cohen, Jerome A. (28 February 2018). "China Is Likely to Enter Another Long Period of Severe Dictatorship". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  20. ^ Patten, Chris (30 July 2019). "Great Countries, Bad Leaders". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 17 August 2019. Moreover, Xi is deploying cutting-edge technology to reinforce his dictatorship.
  21. ^ Feldman, Noah (27 February 2018). "China Now Faces the Downsides of Dictatorship". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  22. ^ Tisdall, Simon (23 November 2018). "The Chinese export we really should be worried about: repression". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 August 2019. What is different, and underappreciated in the west, is the way Xi is inexorably and single-mindedly expanding draconian systems of social control centred on the Communist party and the de facto dictatorship of one man: himself.
  23. ^ Bolt, Andrew (5 July 2021). "Chinese dictator pushing the same buttons Hitler did". Herald Sun. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  24. ^ Gueorguiev, Dimitar (4 December 2019). "Is China a dictatorship?". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 July 2021. Yes, Xi Jinping is a dictator.
  25. ^ Choi, Chi-yuk; Jun, Mai (18 September 2017). "Xi Jinping's political thought will be added to Chinese Communist Party constitution, but will his name be next to it?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  26. ^ "The power of Xi Jinping". The Economist. 18 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  27. ^ Jiayang, Fan; Taisu, Zhang; Ying, Zhu (8 March 2016). "Behind the Personality Cult of Xi Jinping". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  28. ^ "Journal of Current Chinese Affairs" (PDF). giga-hamburg.de. May 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2010.


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