Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin
Владимир Путин
Vladimir Putin (2018-03-01) 03 (cropped).jpg
Putin in 2018
President of Russia
Assumed office
7 May 2012
Prime Minister
Preceded byDmitry Medvedev
In office
31 December 1999 – 7 May 2008
Acting: 31 December 1999 – 7 May 2000
Prime Minister
Preceded byBoris Yeltsin
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Prime Minister of Russia
In office
8 May 2008 – 7 May 2012
PresidentDmitry Medvedev
First Deputy
Preceded byViktor Zubkov
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
In office
9 August 1999 – 7 May 2000
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
First Deputy
Preceded bySergei Stepashin
Succeeded byMikhail Kasyanov
Secretary of the Security Council
In office
9 March 1999 – 9 August 1999
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Preceded byNikolay Bordyuzha
Succeeded bySergei Ivanov
Director of the Federal Security Service
In office
25 July 1998 – 29 March 1999
PresidentBoris Yeltsin
Preceded byNikolay Kovalyov
Succeeded byNikolai Patrushev
Additional positions
Leader of All-Russia People's Front
Assumed office
12 June 2013
Preceded byOffice established
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union State
In office
27 May 2008 – 18 July 2012
Chm of Sup. Cncl.
General SecretaryPavel Borodin
Preceded byViktor Zubkov
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Leader of United Russia
In office
7 May 2008 – 26 May 2012
Preceded byBoris Gryzlov
Succeeded byDmitry Medvedev
Personal details
Born
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin

(1952-10-07) 7 October 1952 (age 68)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia)
Political partyIndependent (1991–95; 2001–08; 2012–present)
Other political
affiliations
People's Front (2011–present)
CPSU (1975–91)
Our Home – Russia
(1995–99)
Unity (1999–2001)
United Russia[1] (2008–12)
Spouse(s)
(m. 1983; div. 2014)
[a]
ChildrenAt least 2, Maria and Katerina[b]
ParentsVladimir Spiridonovich Putin
Maria Ivanovna Putina
ResidenceNovo-Ogaryovo, Moscow
Alma materSaint Petersburg State University (LLB)
Saint Petersburg Mining Institute (PhD)
AwardsOrder of Honour
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union (1975-1991)
 Russia (1991)
Branch/serviceKGB; FSB;
Russian Armed Forces
Years of service1975–1991
RankColonel
Battles/wars

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (/ˈptɪn/; Russian: Владимир Владимирович Путин, [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn] (About this soundlisten); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia since 2012, previously being in the office from 1999 until 2008.[7][c] He was also prime minister from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012.

Putin was born in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) and studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg. He later moved to Moscow in 1996 to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin. He briefly served as Director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and Secretary of the Security Council, before being appointed as prime minister in August 1999. After the resignation of Yeltsin, Putin became acting president, and less than four months later was elected outright to his first term as president and was reelected in 2004. As he was then constitutionally limited to two consecutive terms as president, Putin chose to become the prime minister again from 2008 to 2012, and was reelected as president in 2012, and again in 2018.

During his first tenure as president, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, with GDP measured by purchasing power increasing by 72%, real incomes increased by a factor of 2.5, real wages more than tripled; unemployment and poverty more than halved and the Russians' self-assessed life satisfaction rose significantly.[8] The growth was a result of a fivefold increase in the price of oil and gas which constitute the majority of Russian exports, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, a rise in foreign investment,[9] and prudent economic and fiscal policies.[10][11] Serving under Dmitry Medvedev from 2008 to 2012, he oversaw large scale military reform and police reform. In 2012, Putin sought a third term as president and won with almost 64% of the vote.[12] Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and the War in Donbass led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth, and the recession officially ended.[13] Development under Putin has included the construction of pipelines, the restoration of the satellite navigation system GLONASS, and the building of infrastructure for international events such as the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Putin received 76% of the vote in the 2018 election and was re-elected for a six-year term ending in 2024.

Under Putin's leadership, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding. Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing jailing of political opponents, purges and curtailed press freedom, and the lack of free and fair elections.[14][15][16][17][18] Russia has scored poorly on Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Human rights organizations and activists accuse Putin of persecuting political critics and activists as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated. Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U.S. presidential election in 2016.

  1. ^ "Vladimir Putin quits as head of Russia's ruling party". 24 April 2012 – via The Daily Telegraph.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference RFERL080418 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  7. ^ "Vladimir Putin". Biography.com. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  8. ^ Guriev, Sergei; Tsyvinski, Aleh (2010). "Challenges Facing the Russian Economy after the Crisis". In Anders Åslund; Sergei Guriev; Andrew C. Kuchins (eds.). Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Centre for Strategic and International Studies; New Economic School. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-88132-497-6.
  9. ^ ПОСТУПЛЕНИЕ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ИНВЕСТИЦИЙ ПО ТИПАМ Rosstat
  10. ^ Putin: Russia's Choice, (Routledge 2007), by Richard Sakwa, Chapter 9.
  11. ^ Fragile Empire: How Russia Fell In and Out of Love with Vladimir Putin, Yale University Press (2013), by Ben Judah, page 17.
  12. ^ Shuster, Simon. "In Russia, an Election Victory for Putin and Then a 'Paid Flash Mob'", Time (5 March 2012).
  13. ^ "It's Official: Sanctioned Russia Now Recession Free". Forbes. 3 April 2017.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference :2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference :6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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