Coordinates: 24°N 121°E / 24°N 121°E / 24; 121

Republic of China
Anthem: 中華民國國歌
Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Flag anthem: 中華民國國旗歌
Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
National seal
"Seal of the Republic of China"
National flower
Meihua ROC.svg
Plum blossom
Island of Taiwan (orthographic projection).svg
Republic of China (orthographic projection).svg
25°04′N 121°31′E / 25.067°N 121.517°E / 25.067; 121.517
Largest cityNew Taipei
Official languagesStandard Chinese [b][5][6][7]
Official scriptTraditional Chinese[8]
National languages[d]
Ethnic groups
>95% Han
—70% Hoklo
—14% Hakka
—14% Waishengren
2% Indigenous[12][e]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen
Lai Ching-te
• Premier
Su Tseng-chang
Yu Shyi-kun
Chen Chu
Hsu Tzong-li
Huang Jong-tsun
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
10 October 1911
• Took control of Taiwan and the Pescadores[f]
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
20 May 1948
7 December 1949
31 July 1992
• Total
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)[14][13]
• 2021 estimate
23,451,837[15] (56th)
• 2010 census
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.403 trillion[17] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $56,959[17] (13th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $759.104 billion[17] (21st)
• Per capita
Increase $32,123[18] (29th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 34.1[19]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.916[20]
very high · 23rd
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Date format
Mains electricity110 V–60 Hz[g]
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Taiwan,[II] officially the Republic of China (ROC),[I][h] is a country in East Asia.[22][23][24][25] It shares maritime borders with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. The capital is Taipei, which, along with New Taipei and Keelung, forms the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.45 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

Austronesian-speaking ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese immigration to western Taiwan began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the World War II Allies following the surrender of Japan in 1945. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the ROC's loss of mainland China to forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and retreat to Taiwan in 1949. Its effective jurisdiction has since been limited to Taiwan and numerous smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialisation called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 20th-largest by PPP measures, with major contributions from steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country,[26][27] ranking 15th in GDP per capita. It is ranked highly in terms of political and civil liberties,[28] education, health care[29] and human development.[i][20]

The political status of Taiwan is contentious.[33] The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations, after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead.[34] Meanwhile, the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China and its territory, although this has been downplayed since its democratization in the 1990s. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 13 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See,[34][35][36] though many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only on a non-state basis under various names. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity, although both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.[37][38]
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  1. ^ "Since the implementation of the Act Governing Principles for Editing Geographical Educational Texts (地理敎科書編審原則) in 1997, the guiding principle for all maps in geographical textbooks was that Taipei was to be marked as the capital with a label stating: "Location of the Central Government"". 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  2. ^ "Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital". Taipei Times. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  3. ^ "推動雙語國家政策問題研析". www.ly.gov.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  4. ^ "法律統一用語表-常見公文用語說明" (PDF) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  5. ^ Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan) (2012). "Chapter 2: People and Language". The Republic of China Yearbook 2012. p. 24. ISBN 9789860345902. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  6. ^ Government Information Office (2010). "Chapter 2: People and Language" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2010. p. 42. ISBN 9789860252781. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2011.
  7. ^ Liao, Silvie (2008). "A Perceptual Dialect Study of Taiwan Mandarin: Language Attitudes in the Era of Political Battle". In Chan, Marjorie K. M.; Kang, Hana (eds.). Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20) (PDF). 1. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. p. 393. ISBN 9780982471500. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  8. ^ "行政院第3251次院會決議". www.ey.gov.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Hakka Basic Act". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Indigenous Languages Development Act". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  11. ^ 國家語言發展法. law.moj.gov.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  12. ^ The Republic of China Yearbook 2016. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2016. p. 10. ISBN 9789860499490. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Ethnicity: Over 95 percent Han Chinese (including Holo, Hakka and other groups originating in mainland China); 2 percent indigenous Austronesian peoples
  13. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference cia-factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "TAIWAN SNAPSHOT". Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Statistics from Statistical Bureau". National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  16. ^ "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census" (PDF). National Statistics, ROC (Taiwan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  17. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  18. ^ "GDP: Preliminary Estimate for 2020Q4 and Outlook for 2021" (PDF). dgbas.gov.tw. Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  19. ^ "Percentage share of disposable income by quintile groups of income recipients and measures of income distribution". stat.gov.tw. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  20. ^ a b "國情統計通報(第 014 號)" (PDF). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (ROC). 21 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  21. ^ "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010.
  22. ^ Fell, Dafydd (2018). Government and Politics in Taiwan. London: Routledge. p. 305. ISBN 978-1317285069. Moreover, its status as a vibrant democratic state has earned it huge international sympathy and a generally positive image.
  23. ^ Campbell, Matthew (7 January 2020). "China's Next Crisis Brews in Taiwan's Upcoming Election". Bloomberg Businessweek. No. 4642. pp. 34–39. ISSN 0007-7135. Retrieved 24 September 2020. Much has changed in Taiwan since Chiang's day, but this liminal quality has never really gone away. By almost any functional standard, it's a sovereign country
  24. ^ "Japan's PM refers to Taiwan as country, draws fire from China". Kyodo News. 10 June 2021. Retrieved 25 October 2021. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga referred to Taiwan as a country, immediately drawing fire on Thursday from mainland China, which regards the island as a renegade province.
  25. ^ Kuhn, Anthony (2 August 2021). "After Being Silent For Decades, Japan Now Speaks Up About Taiwan — And Angers China". npr. Retrieved 25 October 2021. 'We have to protect Taiwan, as a democratic country,' Japan's deputy defense minister, Yasuhide Nakayama, said in a conference in June.
  26. ^ World Bank Country and Lending Groups Archived 11 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, World Bank. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  27. ^ "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p. 148" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2016.
  28. ^ "Freedom in the World 2019". freedomhouse.org. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  29. ^ Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi (5 November 2008). "The Quality of Life in Taiwan". Social Indicators Research. 92 (2): 377–404. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9353-1. S2CID 144780750. a second place ranking in the 2000 Economist's world healthcare ranking
  30. ^ "- Human Development Reports" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
  31. ^ 2018中華民國人類發展指數(HDI) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2018. Archived from the original (Excel) on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  32. ^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 14 September 2018. OCLC 1061292121. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  33. ^ Cite error: The named reference hor21 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  34. ^ a b Wood, Richard (27 November 2021). "What is behind the China-Taiwan dispute?". 9News. Nine Entertainment Company. Retrieved 27 November 2021. Experts agree a direct conflict is unlikely, but as the future of self-ruled Taiwan increasingly becomes a powder keg, a mishap or miscalculation could lead to confrontation while Chinese and American ambitions are at odds.
  35. ^ Dou, Eva (16 September 2019). "Solomon Islands Ends Diplomatic Ties with Taiwan, Stands by China". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  36. ^ "Kiribati cuts ties with Taiwan in diplomatic switch to China days after Solomon Islands pivot". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 September 2019. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  37. ^ Fell, Dafydd (2006). Party Politics in Taiwan. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-134-24021-0.
  38. ^ Achen, Christopher H.; Wang, T. Y. (2017). "The Taiwan Voter: An Introduction". In Achen, Christopher H.; Wang, T. Y. (eds.). The Taiwan Voter. University of Michigan Press. pp. 1–25. doi:10.3998/mpub.9375036. ISBN 978-0-472-07353-5. pp. 1–2.

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