Richard Nixon

Richard Nixon
Presidential portrait of Richard Nixon.
37th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Vice President
  • Spiro Agnew (1969–1973)
  • None (Oct–Dec 1973)
  • Gerald Ford (1973–1974)
Preceded byLyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded byGerald Ford
36th Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
PresidentDwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded byAlben W. Barkley
Succeeded byLyndon B. Johnson
United States Senator
from California
In office
December 1, 1950 – January 1, 1953
Preceded bySheridan Downey
Succeeded byThomas Kuchel
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 12th district
In office
January 3, 1947 – November 30, 1950
Preceded byJerry Voorhis
Succeeded byPatrick J. Hillings
Personal details
Born
Richard Milhous Nixon

(1913-01-09)January 9, 1913
Yorba Linda, California, U.S.
DiedApril 22, 1994(1994-04-22) (aged 81)
New York City, U.S.
Resting placeRichard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
(m. 1940; died 1993)
Children
Parents
Education
Occupation
  • Politician
  • lawyer
  • author
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service
  • 1942–1946 (active)
  • 1946–1966 (inactive)
RankUS Navy O5 infobox.svg Commander
Battles/wars
AwardsFull list

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the Republican Party, Nixon previously served as the 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961, having risen to national prominence as a representative and senator from California. After five years in the White House that saw the conclusion to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, détente with the Soviet Union and China, the first manned moon landings, and the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency, he became the only president to resign from the office, following the Watergate scandal.

Nixon was born into a poor family of Quakers in a small town in Southern California. He graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He served on active duty in the Naval Reserves during World War II. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946. His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-Communist which elevated him to national prominence. In 1950, he was elected to the Senate. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1952 election, subsequently serving for eight years as the vice president. He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy. Nixon then lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace in a close election.

Nixon ended American involvement in Vietnam in 1973, ending the military draft that same year. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he gained the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year. His administration generally transferred power from federal control to state control. He imposed wage and price controls for 90 days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency, and began the War on Cancer. He also presided over the Apollo 11 Moon landing, which signaled the end of the Space Race. He was re-elected in one of the largest electoral landslides in American history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.

In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, a war which led to the oil crisis at home. By late 1973, Watergate escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support. On August 9, 1974, facing almost certain impeachment and removal from office, he became the first American president to resign. Afterwards, he was issued a pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote his memoirs and nine other books and undertook many foreign trips, rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at age 81. Surveys of historians and political scientists have ranked Nixon as a below-average president.[2][3][4] However, evaluations of him have proven complex, with his successes as president contrasted against the circumstances of his departure from office.

  1. ^ "Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum" (PDF). September 21, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2015.
  2. ^ "Lincoln Wins: Honest Abe tops new presidential survey". CNN. February 16, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  3. ^ "Presidential Historians Survey 2017". C-SPAN. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  4. ^ "Presidents 2018 Rank by Category" (PDF). Retrieved December 2, 2020.

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