Coordinates: 9°N 80°W / 9°N 80°W / 9; -80

Republic of Panama
República de Panamá  (Spanish)
Motto: "Pro Mundi Beneficio"
"For the Benefit of the World"
Anthem: Himno Istmeño  (Spanish)
Hymn of the Isthmus
Location of Panama
and largest city
Panama City
8°58′N 79°32′W / 8.967°N 79.533°W / 8.967; -79.533
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Laurentino Cortizo
Jose Gabriel Carrizo
LegislatureNational Assembly
• from Spanish Empire
November 28, 1821
• union with Gran Colombia
December 1821
November 3, 1903
November 13, 1945
October 11, 1972
• Total
75,417 km2 (29,119 sq mi)[3][4] (116th)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2010 census
• Density
56/km2 (145.0/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$121.749 billion[7] (80th)
• Per capita
$28,456[7] (57th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$73.369 billion[7] (70th)
• Per capita
$17,148[7] (52nd)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 49.9[8]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.815[9]
very high · 57th
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+507
ISO 3166 codePA

Panama (/ˈpænəmɑː/ (About this soundlisten) PAN-ə-mah, /pænəˈmɑː/ pan-ə-MAH; Spanish: Panamá IPA: [panaˈma] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Panama (Spanish: República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America[10] and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.[11][12]

Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes before Spanish colonists arrived in the 16th century. It broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined the Republic of Gran Colombia, a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, and Venezuela. After Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada eventually became the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, allowing the construction of the Panama Canal to be completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. The 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties agreed to transfer the canal from the United States to Panama on December 31, 1999.[13] The surrounding territory was first returned in 1979.[14]

Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panama's GDP, although commerce, banking, and tourism are major and growing sectors. It is regarded as having a high-income economy.[15] In 2019 Panama ranked 57th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index.[9] In 2018, Panama was ranked the seventh-most competitive economy in Latin America, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index.[16] Covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panama's jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them found nowhere else on earth.[17] Panama is a founding member of the United Nations and other international organizations such as OAS, LAIA, G77, WHO, and NAM.

  1. ^ "Panama". CIA World Factbook.
  2. ^ "Segunda Encuesta Nacional de Hogares, Panama 2015" (PDF). Ministerio Público de la República de Panamá. December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 18, 2019. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  3. ^ "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2017. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics".
  5. ^ "Panama Population". Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  6. ^ Distribución territorial y migración interna en Panamá: Censo 2010 (PDF) (Report) (in Spanish). INEC. 2014. p. 2. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  8. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  10. ^ "National Geographic Education". National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
    National Geographic Atlas (list). National Geographic Society. 2010. p. 4.
    Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map). Merriam-Webster Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859.
    "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
    "North America" Atlas of Canada
    North America Atlas National Geographic
  11. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  12. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  13. ^ "Panama". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  14. ^ Department of State, United States of America (1987) [Signed at Washington on September 7, 1977. Entered into force October 1, 1979.]. "Panama Canal Treaty". United States Treaties and Other International Agreements. 33. United States Department of State. p. 55. 33 UST 39; TIAS 10030. Upon entry into force of this Treaty, the United States Government agencies known as the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government shall cease to operate within the territory of the Republic of Panama that formerly constituted the Canal Zone.
  15. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
  16. ^ "Competitiveness Rankings". The Global Competitiveness Report 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  17. ^ "Country profile: Panama". BBC News. June 30, 2010.

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