Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Nazarbayev
Нұрсұлтан Назарбаев
Nazarbayev Portrait.jpg
Official portrait, 2013
1st President of Kazakhstan
In office
24 April 1990[note 1] – 20 March 2019
Prime Minister
Vice PresidentYerik Asanbayev (1991–96)
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byKassym-Jomart Tokayev
Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan
In office
16 December 1991 – 5 January 2022
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byKassym-Jomart Tokayev
Chairman of Nur Otan
In office
4 July 2007 – 23 November 2021
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byKassym-Jomart Tokayev
Chairman of the Assembly of People
In office
1 March 1995 – 28 April 2021
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byKassym-Jomart Tokayev
Honorary Chairman of the Organization of Turkic States
In office
25 April 2019 – present[1]
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the QKP
In office
22 June 1989 – 7 September 1991
Preceded byGennady Kolbin
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR
In office
22 February 1990 – 24 April 1990
PremierUzakbay Karamanov
Preceded byKilibay Medeubekov
Succeeded byErik Asanbayev
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR
In office
22 March 1984 – 27 July 1989
ChairmanBayken Ashimov
Salamay Mukashev
Zakash Kamaledinov
Vera Sidorova
Makhtay Sagdiyev
Preceded byBayken Ashimov
Succeeded byUzakbay Karamanov
Personal details
Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbayev

(1940-07-06) 6 July 1940 (age 81)
Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union
(now Ushkonyr, Kazakhstan)
Political partyNur Otan (1999–present)
Other political
Communist (1962–1991)
Independent (1991–1999)
(m. 1962)
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Union
Branch/serviceArmed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Years of service1991–2019
RankПогон верховного главнокомандующего Казахстана.png
Supreme Commander
Central institution membership

Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev[2] (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев, romanized: Nūrsūltan Äbışūly Nazarbaev, pronounced [nʊrsʊlˈtɑn æbəɕʊˈlə nɑzɑɾˈbɑjɪf]) or Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev (Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев, pronounced [nʊrsʊɫˈtan ɐˈbʲiʂɨvʲɪtɕ nəzɐrˈba(j)ɪf]; born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh politician who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from 24 April 1990[3] until his formal resignation on 20 March 2019,[4] and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 21 August 1991 to 5 January 2022,[5] holding the title Elbasy (meaning "Leader of the Nation")[6] since 14 June 2010.[7] He was one of the longest-ruling non-royal leaders in the world, having led Kazakhstan for nearly three decades, excluding chairmanship in the Security Council after the end of his presidency. He was named First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and was elected as the nation's first president shortly before its independence from the Soviet Union. According to some opposition groups he is still the "unofficial leader" and "dictator" of the country.

In 1962, while working as a factory steel worker, Nazarbayev joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) where he was prominent member of the Komsomol and a full-time worker for the party. From 1984, Nazarbayev was the Prime Minister of the Kazakh SSR. During his tenure, he was appointed as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (QKP), the most powerful position in 1989. In April 1990, Nazarbayev was appointed as Kazakhstan's first president by the Supreme Soviet. From there, he supported Russian President Boris Yeltsin against the attempted coup in August 1991 by the Soviet hardliners. The Soviet Union then fell apart after 1991 Soviet coup d'etat failed, though Nazarbayev went to great lengths to maintain close economic ties with Russia by introducing Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and eventually the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).

Nazarbayev is considered by observers to have ruled a dictatorship in Kazakhstan,[8][9][10] fueled by growing cult of personality as various institutions, streets, parks, monuments, public holidays, and most notably the capital of Nur-Sultan being dedicated and named after him,[11] while dissent was suppressed in the country and elections were deemed not free and fair.[12][13] In the country's first open direct presidential election, held in 1991, he appeared alone on the ballot with no opposing candidates and won 98% of the vote. An April 1995 referendum extended Nazarbayev's term until 2000 and in August of that year, a constitutional referendum was held which allowed for a new draft for the Constitution of Kazakhstan that greatly strengthened presidential powers. In 1999, Nazarbayev was re-elected for a second term and again in 2005 and 2011 after a constitutional amendment had granted him to run as president indefinitely. In 2010, he announced reforms to encourage a multi-party system in an attempt to counter the ruling Nur Otan's one-party control of the lower house Mazhilis from 2007. This led to the reinstatement of various parties in Parliament following the 2012 legislative elections, although having little influence and opposition as the parties supported and voted with the government while Nur Otan still had dominant-party control of the Mazhilis. In 2015, Nazarbayev was re-elected for the last time for a fifth term with almost 98% of the vote while in a middle of an economic crisis, as he ran virtually unopposed. In January 2017, Nazarbayev proposed constitutional reforms that would delegate powers to the Parliament of Kazakhstan. In May 2018, the Parliament approved a constitutional amendment allowing Nazarbayev to lead the Security Council for life.

In March 2019, he resigned from the presidency amid anti-government protests and was succeeded by Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, a close ally of Nazarbayev, who overwhelmingly won the following snap presidential elections in June 2019. He is immune from any criminal prosecution and continued to serve as the Assembly of People of Kazakhstan and Nur Otan Chairman until 2021. Nazarbayev is also a member of the Constitutional Council and an honorary member of the Senate of Kazakhstan, and was chairman of the Security Council until his dismissal from that post in response to the 2022 Kazakh protests.[14]
Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Statement on granting the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan-Elbasy, H.E Nursultan Nazarbayev, the status of the life-time Honorary President of the Turkic Council". Organization of Turkic States. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  2. ^ Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de (14 January 2013). Principles of International Politics – Bruce Bueno de Mesquita – Google Books. p. 57. ISBN 9781483304663. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Background on Nursultan Nazarbayev". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019. The republic's Supreme Soviet elected Nazarbayev president of the Kazakh SSR on April 24, 1990.
  4. ^ "Veteran Kazakh leader Nazarbayev resigns after three decades in power". Reuters. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  5. ^ "Токаев объявил о смещении с поста Нурсултана Назарбаева". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  6. ^ Walker, Shaun (24 April 2015). "Kazakhstan election avoids question of Nazarbayev successor". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  7. ^ "Kazakh president declared Leader of the Nation". Reuters. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  8. ^ Matthews, Austi S. (25 April 2019). "What happens to Kazakhstan's dictatorship now that its dictator has quit?". The Washington Post.
  9. ^ Oropeza, Miguel (19 March 2015). "Is Kazakhstan's Nazarbayev the Lee Kwan Yew of Central Asia? | OpenAsia". Retrieved 1 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ BISENOV, NAUBET (20 March 2019). "Kazakhstan's President Nazarbayev resigns but retains key posts". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 1 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Nursultan: Kazakhstan renames capital Astana after ex-president". BBC News. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  12. ^ Pannier, Bruce (11 March 2015). "Kazakhstan's long term president to run in show election – again". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2015. Nazarbayev has clamped down on dissent in Kazakhstan, and the country has never held an election judged to be free or fair by the West.
  13. ^ Chivers, C.J. (6 December 2005). "Kazakh President Re-elected; voting Flawed, Observers Say". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2014. Kazakhstan has never held an election that was not rigged.
  14. ^ Auyezov, Olzhas (5 January 2022). "Kazakh president fails to quell protests, 8 deaths reported". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2022.

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