Mohammed bin Salman

Mohammed bin Salman
A photograph of Mohammed bin Salman aged 34
The Crown Prince in 2019
Tenure21 June 2017 – present
PredecessorMuhammad bin Nayef
MonarchSalman
Minister of Defense
Tenure23 January 2015 – present
PredecessorSalman bin Abdulaziz
MonarchSalman
BornMohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
(1985-08-31) 31 August 1985 (age 35)
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Spouse
Princess Sarah bint Mashhoor bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
(m. 2008)
Issue
  • Prince Salman bin Mohammed
  • Prince Mashhur bin Mohammed
  • Princess Fahda bint Mohammed
  • Princess Noura bint Mohammed
Names
Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal bin Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud
Awards
HouseSaud
FatherSalman of Saudi Arabia
MotherFahda bint Falah Al Sultan

Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: محمد بن سلمان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود‎, romanizedMuḥammad bin Salmān bin ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd; born 31 August 1985),[1][2][3] colloquially known as MBS,[4][5][6] is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia. He is currently serving as the country's deputy prime minister[7] (the title of prime minister being held by the king) and is also Chairman of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs, Chairman of the Council of Political and Security Affairs, and Minister of Defense – the world's youngest at the time of his appointment.[8] He has been described as the power behind the throne of his father, King Salman. He was appointed crown prince[9] in June 2017 following King Salman's decision to remove Muhammad bin Nayef from all positions, making Mohammed bin Salman heir-designate to the throne.[10][11][12]

He has led several successful reforms, which include regulations restricting the powers of the religious police,[13] the removal of the ban on female drivers in June 2018,[14] and weakening the male-guardianship system in August 2019.[15] Other cultural developments under his reign include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadium to admit women,[16] an increased presence of women in the workforce,[17] and opening the country to international tourists by introducing an e-visa system, allowing foreign visas to be applied for and issued via the Internet.[18] His Vision 2030 program aims to diversify the Saudi economy through investment in non-oil sectors including technology and tourism. In 2016, he announced plans to list the shares of the state oil company Saudi Aramco.[19]

Despite praise for his strides towards the social and economic liberalisation of Saudi Arabia, international commentators and human rights groups have been openly critical of bin Salman's leadership and the shortfalls of his reform program, citing a rising number of detentions and alleged torture of human rights activists,[20] the Saudi bombing campaign in Yemen which has exacerbated the humanitarian crisis and famine,[21] the escalation of the Qatar diplomatic crisis,[22] the start of the Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute, the start of a diplomatic spat with Canada, the arrest of members of the Saudi royal family in November 2017, a crackdown on feminists,[23][24][25] the hacking and blackmailing of The Washington Post owner and world's second wealthiest person, Jeff Bezos; and the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi.[26][27] He has been described by observers as an autocratic leader with no tolerance for dissent against him or the Saudi royal family.[28] He was honoured by the Government of Pakistan with the highest civil decoration for having strong ties with the country in 2019.

  1. ^ "Profile: Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman". Al Jazeera. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Ministries". Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia – Washington, D.C. 30 April 2003. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Who is Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed?". BBC News. 6 November 2017. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  4. ^ Aziza, Sarah (1 February 2019). "Mohammed bin Salman Is Running Saudi Arabia Like a Man Who Got Away With Murder". The Intercept.
  5. ^ Yasar, Abdulaziz Ahmet (23 November 2018). "Is Trump's Middle East policy based on two fragile regional allies?". TRT World.
  6. ^ "Assessing the Saudi Government's Role in the Killing of Jamal Khashoggi" (PDF). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. 11 February 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Mohammad bin Salman named new Saudi Crown Prince". TASS. Beirut. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Mohammed bin Nayef kingpin in new Saudi Arabia: country experts". Middle East Eye. 1 February 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  9. ^ Anthony Bond, Rachael Burford (24 October 2017). "Saudi Arabia will return to moderate, open Islam and 'will destroy extremist ideas', says crown prince". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  10. ^ Chavez, Nicole; Qiblawi, Tamara; Griffiths, James. "Saudi Arabia's king replaces nephew with son as heir to throne". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017.
  11. ^ Raghavan, Sudarsan; Fahim, Karim (21 June 2017). "Saudi king names son as new crown prince, upending the royal succession line". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  12. ^ "Saudi royal decrees announcing Prince Mohammed BinSalman as the new crown prince". The National. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYToct16 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference economist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference alRasheed_second_victory was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ "Saudi Arabia to allow women to enter stadiums to watch soccer". The New York Post. 12 January 2018. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  17. ^ Millership, Iain (2 March 2018). "Mohammed bin Salman's reforms in Saudi Arabia could benefit us all". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018.
  18. ^ Baron, Adam (22 January 2019). "The Other Magic Kingdom". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  19. ^ "Saudi Arabia is considering an IPO of Aramco, probably the world's most valuable company". The Economist. 7 January 2016. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  20. ^ "Saudi Arabia denies rights activists tortured and sexually harassed in jail". Middle East Eye. 24 November 2018. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference LiseGrande_worldworstfamine100yrs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Alkhshali, Hamdi; Qiblawi, Tamara. "Saudi Crown Prince calls Qatar embargo a 'small issue'". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference OHCHR_2018crackdown was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference MEE_crackdown was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference ThReut_Abdelaziz_Zahrani was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ Hearst, David (21 June 2017). "Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's Prince Of Chaos". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  27. ^ Mazzetti, Mark; Hubbard, Ben (15 October 2016). "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 16 October 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  28. ^ Kagan, Robert (24 October 2018). "The myth of the modernizing dictator". Brookings. Retrieved 1 April 2019.

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