Magic (supernatural)

The Magician, an illustration from the Rider–Waite tarot deck first published in 1910

Magic, sometimes stylized as magick,[1] is the application of beliefs, rituals or actions employed in the belief that they can subdue or manipulate natural or supernatural beings and forces.[2] It is a category into which have been placed various beliefs and practices sometimes considered separate from both religion and science.[3]

Although connotations have varied from positive to negative at times throughout history,[4] magic "continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today".[5]

Within Western culture, magic has been linked to ideas of the Other,[6] foreignness,[7] and primitivism;[8] indicating that it is "a powerful marker of cultural difference"[9] and likewise, a non-modern phenomenon.[10] During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Western intellectuals perceived the practice of magic to be a sign of a primitive mentality and also commonly attributed it to marginalised groups of people.[9]

In modern occultism and Neopagan religions, many self-described magicians and witches regularly practice ritual magic;[11] defining magic as a technique for bringing about change in the physical world through the force of one's will. This definition was popularised by Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), an influential British occultist, and since that time other religions (e.g. Wicca and LaVeyan Satanism) and magical systems (e.g. chaos magic) have adopted it.

  1. ^ Bogdan 2012, p. 12; Bailey 2018, pp. 22–23.
  2. ^ Hutton, R., (2017), The Witch, p. x
  3. ^ Hutton, R., (2017), The Witch p. x
  4. ^ Bailey 2018, pp. 1–5.
  5. ^ Baglari, M.H. (2015). "The Magic Art of Witchcraft and Black Magic". International Journal of Scientific and Research: 20. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.736.7031.
  6. ^ Bogdan 2012, p. 2; Graham 2018, p. 255.
  7. ^ Bailey 2018, p. 89.
  8. ^ Davies 2012, p. 1.
  9. ^ a b Styers 2004, p. 14.
  10. ^ Styers 2004, p. 8.
  11. ^ Berger, H.A., Ezzy, D., (2007), Teenage Witches, Rutgers University Press, p. 24.

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