Jair Bolsonaro

Jair Bolsonaro
2020-03-24 Pronunciamento do Presidente da República, Jair Bolsonaro em Rede Nacional de Rádio e Televisão - 49695919452 (cropped 2).jpg
Bolsonaro in 2020
President of Brazil
Assumed office
1 January 2019
Vice PresidentHamilton Mourão
Preceded byMichel Temer
Federal Deputy for Rio de Janeiro
In office
1 February 1991 – 1 January 2019
City Councillor of Rio de Janeiro
In office
1 January 1989 – 1 February 1991
Personal details
Born
Jair Messias Bolsonaro

(1955-03-21) 21 March 1955 (age 66)
Glicério, São Paulo, Brazil
Political partyPL (2021–present)
Other political
affiliations
See list
Spouse(s)
Rogéria Nantes Braga
(m. 1978; div. 1997)
Ana Cristina Valle
(m. 1997; div. 2007)
(m. 2007)
Children
Residence
EducationAgulhas Negras Military Academy
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website
Military service
Allegiance Brazil
Branch/serviceBrazil Brazilian Army
Years of service1973–1988
RankBarzil-Army-OF-2 (horizontal).svg Captain
Commands21st Field Artillery Group
9th Field Artillery Group
8th Parachutist Field Artillery Group

Jair Messias Bolsonaro (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒaˈiʁ meˈsi.ɐz bowsoˈnaɾu, ʒaˈiɾ -]; born 21 March 1955) is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer who has been the 38th president of Brazil since 1 January 2019. He was elected in 2018 as a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party before cutting ties with it. From 1991 to 2018, Bolsonaro served in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Bolsonaro was born in the town of Glicério, in the state of São Paulo. He graduated from the Agulhas Negras Military Academy in 1977 and served in the Brazilian Army's field artillery and parachutist units. He became known to the public in 1986, when he wrote an article for Veja magazine criticizing low wages for military officers, after which he was arrested and detained for 15 days. A year later, the same magazine accused him of planning to plant bombs in military units, which he denied. After being convicted by a lower court, the Brazilian Supreme Military Court acquitted him in 1988.[1] He moved to the reserve in 1988 with the rank of captain and ran for the Rio de Janeiro City Council that year, elected as a member of the Christian Democratic Party. In 1990, Bolsonaro was elected to the lower chamber of Congress and he was reelected six times. During his 27-year tenure as a congressman, he became known for his national conservatism. He is a vocal opponent of same-sex marriage and homosexuality,[2][3] abortion,[4] affirmative action,[5] drug liberalization,[6] and secularism.[6] In foreign policy, he has advocated closer relations to the United States[7] and Israel.[8] During the 2018 Brazilian general election campaign, he started to advocate economically liberal and pro-market policies.[9] A polarizing and controversial politician, his views and comments, which have been described as far-right and populist, have drawn both praise and criticism in Brazil.[10][11][12][13]

Bolsonaro announced his candidacy for president in March 2016 as a member of the Social Christian Party.[14] He left the party in 2018 and joined the Social Liberal Party, and then launched his presidential campaign in August that year, with retired general Hamilton Mourão as his running mate. He portrayed himself as an outsider and a supporter of family values. He came in first place in the first round of the general election on 7 October 2018, with Workers' Party candidate Fernando Haddad coming in second. The two candidates had a runoff on 28 October 2018, and Bolsonaro was elected with 55.1% of the popular vote.

Bolsonaro placed many army officers in key positions in his cabinet. Before his inauguration, Bolsonaro said he would fill positions in his government based only on technical qualifications and skills rather than ideological sympathy. During his presidency, many appointees have clashed ideologically with the government. His minister of Justice, Education, the Secretary of Government, the head of the postal service and other government officials fell out of favor with Bolsonaro and resigned.[15] He focused on domestic affairs in his first months in office, dealing primarily with the fallout of 2014 Brazilian economic crisis. The economy did recover, albeit slowly, during his first year in office, while crime rates fell sharply.[16][17] Multiple controversies marked his administration's first years. In 2019, Bolsonaro left the Social Liberal Party amid a confrontation with other members and formed the Alliance for Brazil. During his presidency, he rolled back protections for Indigenous groups in the Amazon rainforest[18] and facilitated its destruction through deforestation.[19] Bolsonaro's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil was criticized across the political spectrum after he sought to downplay the pandemic and its effects, opposed quarantine measures, and dismissed two health ministers, while the death toll increased rapidly.[20] Public opinion, which had been favourable during his first year in office, turned negative throughout most of 2020,[21] briefly becoming positive again after authorising emergency payments before turning negative once more in 2021.[22][23]

  1. ^ Carvalho, Luiz Maklouf (1 April 2018). "O julgamento que tirou Bolsonaro do anonimato". O Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  2. ^ Andrade, Claudia (5 May 2011). "Bolsonaro: após união gay, próximo passo é legalizar pedofilia". Noticias.terra.com.br. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  3. ^ Sullivan, Zoe (29 October 2018). "LGBTQ Brazilians on edge after self-described 'homophobic' lawmaker elected president". NBC News. Archived from the original on 31 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Bolsonaro, em Porto Alegre, confirma ser contra o aborto e a favor da redução da maioridade penal" [Bolsonaro, in Porto Alegre, confirms he is against abortion and in favor of lowering the age of criminal responsibility]. Jornal O Sul. 21 August 2015. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  5. ^ "Para ministra da Igualdade Racial, declarações de Bolsonaro são caso explícito de racismo". Política. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Jair Bolsonaro: "Sou preconceituoso, com muito orgulho"". revistaepoca.globo.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  7. ^ Wierson, Arick (7 October 2018). "Will Brazil's Jair Bolsonaro Become Trump's New Best Friend?". The Observer. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  8. ^ Staff (6 October 2018). "Brazil's Workers' Party likens pro-Israel presidential front-runner to Hitler". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 12 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Bolsonaro diz que é liberal e adota discurso que agrada investidores - 09/10/2017 - Poder". Folha de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  10. ^ Brooke, James (25 July 1993). "Conversations/Jair Bolsonaro; A Soldier Turned Politician Wants To Give Brazil Back to Army Rule". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  11. ^ Editorial Board (8 October 2018). "Brazilian Swamp Drainer". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  12. ^ "O inquietante 'fenômeno Bolsonaro'". brasil.elpais.com (in Portuguese). 7 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  13. ^ "Brazil's congress starts to reform itself". The Economist. 14 October 2017. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  14. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro é apresentado como pré-candidato à Presidência da República". Extra, Globo (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  15. ^ "As principais baixas do governo Bolsonaro". DW.com.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  16. ^ "Slow economic recovery and China to be discussed at 2020 Brazilian Prospects Seminar". FVG.br. 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  17. ^ "No primeiro ano do governo Bolsonaro, estados garantem queda na criminalidade". FVG.br (in Portuguese). 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Indigenous Global Affairs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference environment was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Watson, Katy (12 June 2020). "Coronavirus: How pandemic turned political in Brazil". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Brazil president's approval rating among worst since return to democracy: poll". Reuters.com. 8 July 2020. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  22. ^ "'He became a hero': Bolsonaro sees popularity surge as Covid-19 spreads". The Guardian. 10 October 2020.
  23. ^ "Crise derruba popularidade de Bolsonaro, aponta Datafolha". Folha de S.Paulo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 22 January 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.

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