History

Herodotus (c. 484 BCc. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"

Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1]

George Santayana

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past.[3][4] Events before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of these events. Historians seek knowledge of the past using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, art and material artifacts, and ecological markers.[5]

History also includes the academic discipline which uses narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze past events, and investigate their patterns of cause and effect.[6][7] Historians often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the nature of history as an end in itself, as well as its usefulness to give perspective on the problems of the present.[6][8][9][10]

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends.[11][12] History differs from myth in that it is supported by evidence. However, ancient cultural influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. History is often taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.

Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian, is often considered the "father of history" in the Western tradition,[13] although he has also been criticized as the "father of lies".[14][15] Along with his contemporary Thucydides, he helped form the foundations for the modern study of past events and societies. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was reputed to date from as early as 722 BC, although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived.

  1. ^ George Santayana, "The Life of Reason", Volume One, p. 82, BiblioLife, ISBN 978-0-559-47806-2
  2. ^ Joseph, Brian; Janda, Richard, eds. (2008) [2004]. The Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-4051-2747-9.
  3. ^ "History Definition". Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  4. ^ "What is History & Why Study It?". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  5. ^ Arnold, John H. (2000). History: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019285352X.
  6. ^ a b Professor Richard J. Evans (2001). "The Two Faces of E.H. Carr". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
  7. ^ Professor Alun Munslow (2001). "What History Is". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
  8. ^ Tosh, John (2006). The Pursuit of History (4th ed.). Pearson Education Limited. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4058-2351-7.
  9. ^ Peter N. Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg, eds. (2000). "Introduction". Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8147-8141-8.
  10. ^ Nash l, Gary B. (2000). "The "Convergence" Paradigm in Studying Early American History in Schools". In Peter N. Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. pp. 102–115. ISBN 978-0-8147-8141-8.
  11. ^ Seixas, Peter (2000). "Schweigen! die Kinder!". In Peter N. Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-8147-8141-8.
  12. ^ Lowenthal, David (2000). "Dilemmas and Delights of Learning History". In Peter N. Stearns; Peters Seixas; Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. New York & London: New York University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8147-8141-8.
  13. ^ Halsall, Paul. "Ancient History Sourcebook: 11th Brittanica: Herodotus". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  14. ^ Vives, Juan Luis; Watson, Foster (1913). Vives, on education : a translation of the De tradendis disciplinis of Juan Luis Vives. Robarts - University of Toronto. Cambridge : The University Press.
  15. ^ Juan Luis Vives (1551). Ioannis Ludouici Viuis Valentini, De disciplinis libri 20. in tres tomos distincti, quorum ordinem versa pagella iudicabit. Cum indice copiosissimo (in Latin). National Central Library of Rome. apud Ioannem Frellonium.

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