|History of Berlin|
|Margraviate of Brandenburg (1157–1806)|
|Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918)|
|German Empire (1871–1918)|
|Free State of Prussia (1918–1947)|
|Weimar Republic (1919–1933)|
|Nazi Germany (1933–1945)|
|West Germany and East Germany (1945–1990)|
|Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present)|
The history of Berlin starts with its foundation in the 13th century. It became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1417, and later of Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia grew about rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and formed the basis of the German Empire in 1871, which survived until 1918, after the empire's defeat in World War I.
After 1900 Berlin became a major world city, known for its leadership roles in science, the humanities, music, museums, higher education, government, diplomacy and military affairs. It also had a role in manufacturing and finance.
During World War II, bombing, artillery, and ferocious street-by-street fighting destroyed large parts of Berlin. Troops would also hide in buildings. Berlin was divided among the four major Allied powers. For over four decades, it encapsulated the Cold War confrontation between West and East. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, Berlin was restored as a capital and as a major world city.