Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos (cropped).JPEG
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
10th President of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986
Prime MinisterHimself (1978–1981)
Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
Vice PresidentFernando Lopez (1965–1972)
Preceded byDiosdado Macapagal
Succeeded byCorazon Aquino
3rd Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
June 12, 1978 – June 30, 1981
Preceded byOffice established
(Position previously held by Jorge B. Vargas as Ministries involved)
Succeeded byCesar Virata
Secretary of National Defense
In office
August 28, 1971 – January 3, 1972
PresidentHimself
Preceded byJuan Ponce Enrile
Succeeded byJuan Ponce Enrile
In office
December 31, 1965 – January 20, 1967
PresidentHimself
Preceded byMacario Peralta
Succeeded byErnesto Mata
11th President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
April 5, 1963 – December 30, 1965
Preceded byEulogio Rodriguez
Succeeded byArturo Tolentino
Senator of the Philippines
In office
December 30, 1959 – December 30, 1965
Member of the
Philippine House of Representatives
from Ilocos Norte's 2nd district
In office
December 30, 1949 – December 30, 1959
Preceded byPedro Albano
Succeeded bySimeon M. Valdez
Personal details
Born
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos

(1917-09-11)September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
DiedSeptember 28, 1989(1989-09-28) (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
Resting placeFerdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center, Batac, Ilocos Norte
(1993–2016)
Libingan ng mga Bayani, Metro Manila
(since November 18, 2016)
Political partyKilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978–1989)
Other political
affiliations
Liberal Party (1946–1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965–1972)
Independent (1972–1978)
Spouse(s)
Children
Alma materUniversity of the Philippines
ProfessionLawyer, jurist, politician
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)Macoy, Ferdie
Allegiance
Years of service1942–1945
RankFirst lieutenant
Major
Unit21st Infantry Division (USAFFE)
14th Infantry Regiment (USAFIP-NL)
Battles/warsWorld War II

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (/ˈmɑːrkɔːs/,[6] September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986, widely considered by academics,[7][8][9] economists,[10][11][12] and journalists[13][14][15] as a kleptocrat. He ruled as a dictator[16][17][18] under martial law from 1972 until 1981[19] and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986, branding his rule as "constitutional authoritarianism"[20][21]: 414  under his New Society Movement. One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos' rule was infamous for its corruption,[22][23][24][25] extravagance,[26][27][28] and brutality.[29][30][31]

Marcos gained political success by claiming to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines,"[32] but many of his claims have been found to be false,[33][34][35] with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd."[36][37] After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965 and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning of his 20-year rule[38] but would end in the loss of livelihood, extreme poverty,[39][40] and a crushing debt crisis.[41][40] He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign debt,[42][43] making him popular during his first term, although it would also trigger an inflationary crisis which would lead to social unrest in his second term.[44][45] Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972,[46][47] shortly before the end of his second term. Martial law was ratified in 1973 through a fraudulent referendum.[48] The Constitution was revised, media outlets were silenced,[49] and violence and oppression were used[31] against the political opposition,[50][51] Muslims,[52] suspected communists,[53][54] and ordinary citizens.[51]

After being elected for a third term in the 1981 Philippine presidential election, Marcos's popularity suffered greatly, due to the economic collapse that began in early 1983 and the public outrage over the assassination of opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. later that year. This discontent, the resulting resurgence of the opposition in the 1984 Philippine parliamentary election, and the discovery of documents exposing his financial accounts and false war records led Marcos to call the snap election of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, and human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution of February 1986, which removed him from power.[55] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly."[56] Marcos then fled with his family to Hawaii.[57] He was succeeded as president by Aquino's widow, Corazon "Cory" Aquino.[58][59][60]

According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG),[61] the Marcos family stole US$5 billion–$10 billion from the Central Bank of the Philippines.[62][63] The PCGG also maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars[64] from the Philippines[65][66] between 1965 and 1986. His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship,[67][68][69] is the source of the term "Imeldific".[70] Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics. He and his wife currently hold the Guinness World Record for "Greatest Robbery of a Government".[71]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference loveLiesLoot was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Lagasca, Charlie (April 11, 2011). "Bongbong mum on Australian half-sister". The Philippine Star.
  3. ^ "Hunt for tyrant's millions leads to former model's home". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 24, 2004.
  4. ^ Malig, Jojo (March 31, 2011). "Ferdinand Marcos' Aussie daughter axed from TV show". ABS-CBN News.
  5. ^ Matsuzawa, Mikas (2003). "31 years of amnesia: Imagined heroism". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on June 27, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2019. In a study released by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) on Independence Day last year, it said that Marcos lied about receiving three of his US medals: the Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star and Order of the Purple Heart.

    Marcos' fabricated heroism was one of the reasons the state agency on the preservation of Philippine history disputed his burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

    A doubtful record, it argued, does not serve as a sound basis of historical recognition, let alone burial in a space for heroes.

    "The rule in history is that when a claim is disproven—such as Mr. Marcos's claims about his medals, rank, and guerrilla unit—it is simply dismissed," NHCP said.
  6. ^ The New Websters Dictionary of the English Language. Lexicon Publications, Inc. 1994. p. 609. ISBN 0-7172-4690-6.
  7. ^ David, Chaikin; Sharman, J.C. (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and Money Laundering: A Symbiotic Relationship. Palgrave Series on Asian Governance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 153–186. doi:10.1057/9780230622456_7. ISBN 978-0-230-61360-7.
  8. ^ Root, Hilton L. (2019). "Lootable Resources and Political Virtue: The Economic Governance of Lee Kuan Yew, Ferdinand Marcos, and Chiang Kai-shek Compared". In Mendoza, Ronald U.; Beja Jr., Edsel L.; Teehankee, Julio C.; La Viña, Antonio G. M.; Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe (eds.). Building Inclusive Democracies In ASEAN. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. pp. 225–241. doi:10.1142/9789813236493_0013. ISBN 978-981-3236-50-9.
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  10. ^ Acemoglu, Daron; Verdier, Thierry; Robinson, James A. (May 1, 2004). "Kleptocracy and Divide-and-Rule: A Model of Personal Rule". Journal of the European Economic Association. 2 (2–3): 162–192. doi:10.1162/154247604323067916. ISSN 1542-4766. S2CID 7846928.
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  12. ^ Perkins, Dwight (January 1, 2021). "Understanding political influences on Southeast Asia's development experience". Fulbright Review of Economics and Policy. 1 (1): 4–20. doi:10.1108/FREP-03-2021-0021. ISSN 2635-0181. S2CID 237774730.
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  15. ^ Roa, Ana (September 29, 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  16. ^ Bonner, William; Bonner, Raymond (1987). Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8129-1326-2.
  17. ^ Fuentecilla, Jose V. (April 1, 2013). Fighting from a Distance: How Filipino Exiles Helped Topple a Dictator. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-09509-2.
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  19. ^ Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 971-06-1894-6. p. 189.
  20. ^ Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275941376.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference PalgraveNewHistoryofSEA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (August 1, 1993). "Corruption*". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 108 (3): 599–617. doi:10.2307/2118402. ISSN 0033-5533. JSTOR 2118402.
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  24. ^ Hodess, Robin; Inowlocki, Tania; Rodriguez, Diana; Wolfe, Toby, eds. (2004). Global Corruption Report 2004 (PDF). Sterling, VA, USA: Pluto Press in association with Transparency International. pp. 13, 101. ISBN 0-7453-2231-X.
  25. ^ "G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003". Supreme Court E-Library. Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  26. ^ Traywick, Catherine (January 16, 2014). "Shoes, Jewels, and Monets: The Immense Ill-Gotten Wealth of Imelda Marcos". Foreign Policy.
  27. ^ "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. February 25, 1986.
  28. ^ Laurie, Jim (1986). "Excerpt – Imelda Marcos from ABC 20/20 March 1986". ABC News.
  29. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (July 8, 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times.
  30. ^ Cite error: The named reference amnestyInternational1975 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  31. ^ a b "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
  32. ^ Bueza, Michael (August 20, 2016). "Marcos' World War II 'medals' explained". Rappler.
  33. ^ "Marcos flees at last". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  34. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part II)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  35. ^ Bondoc, Jarius (April 8, 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". The Philippine Star.
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  37. ^ Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017.
  38. ^ "GDP (constant LCU) – Data". data.worldbank.org.
  39. ^ "Under Marcos dictatorship unemployment worsened, prices soared, poverty persisted". IBON Foundation. November 25, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
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  41. ^ Yamsuan, Cathy (December 12, 2011). "Open records of Marcos' spy agency, Enrile urges". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  42. ^ Mendoza, Ronald (February 26, 2016). "Ferdinand Marcos' economic disaster". Rappler.
  43. ^ Galang, Ping (February 21, 2011). "The economic decline that led to Marcos' fall". GMA News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
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  49. ^ Rivett, Rohan (March 13, 1973). "The Mark of Marcos – Part I: A deafening silence in the Philippines". The Age.
  50. ^ Kushida, Kenji (2003). "The Political Economy of the Philippines Under Marcos – Property Rights in the Philippines from 1965 to 1986" (PDF). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs.
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  54. ^ "Why the Late Philippine Dictator Was No Hero". Human Rights Watch. November 8, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  55. ^ "From Aquino's Assassination to People's Power". Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  56. ^ Hoffman, David; Cannon, Lou; Coleman, Milton; Dewar, Helen; Goshko, John M.; Oberdorfer, Don; W, George C. (February 26, 1986). "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly'". The Washington Post.
  57. ^ Reaves, Joseph A. (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules – Peaceful Revolt Ends In Triumph". Chicago Tribune.
  58. ^ Benigno Aquino Jr. (August 21, 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
  59. ^ Laurie, Jim (August 21, 1983). "Last interview with and footage of Ninoy Aquino assassination". YouTube. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  60. ^ Kashiwara, Ken (October 16, 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times.
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  62. ^ "Hail to the thief". The Economist. November 12, 2016.
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  64. ^ Mogato, Manuel (February 24, 2016). "Philippines still seeks $1 billion in Marcos wealth 30 years after his ouster". Reuters.
  65. ^ Tantiangco, Aya; Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (February 25, 2016). "What Marcoses brought to Hawaii after fleeing PHL in '86: $717-M in cash, $124-M in deposit slips". GMA News.
  66. ^ Heilprin, John (April 13, 2015). "Political Will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
  67. ^ Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos-1 (PDF). San Francisco: Union Square Publications.
  68. ^ Warde, Ibrahim (May 25, 2011). "From Marcos to Gaddafi: Kleptocrats, Old and New". The World Post.
  69. ^ Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (October 12, 2014). "'Imeldific' collection of artworks (partial list)". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  70. ^ Macapendeg, Mac (September 21, 2012). "Martial Law fashion: The Imeldific and the Third World look". GMA News.
  71. ^ "Greatest robbery of a Government". Guinness World Records.


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