COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic
Covid-19 SP - UTI V. Nova Cachoeirinha.jpg
Medical professionals treating a COVID-19 patient in critical condition in an ICU in São Paulo in May 2020
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg
Confirmed deaths per 100,000 population
as of 15 January 2022
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg
Cumulative percentage of population infected
as of 28 November 2021
  •   >10%
  •   3–10%
  •   1–3%
  •   0.3–1%
  •   0.1–0.3%
  •   0.03–0.1%
  •   0–0.03%
  •   None or no data
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2
(SARS‑CoV‑2)
SourceBats,[1] likely indirectly[2]
LocationWorldwide
Index caseWuhan, China
30°37′11″N 114°15′28″E / 30.61972°N 114.25778°E / 30.61972; 114.25778
Date17 November 2019 (2019-11-17) – present
(2 years and 2 months)
Confirmed cases328,649,355[3]
Deaths
5,541,890[3] (reported)
8.7–21.5 million (estimated)[4][5]

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019, and attempts to contain it there failed, allowing it to spread across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 17 January 2022, the pandemic had caused more than 328 million cases and 5.54 million deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.

COVID-19 symptoms range from undetectable to deadly. Severe illness is more likely in elderly patients and those with certain underlying medical conditions. COVID‑19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if contaminated fluids reach the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. Infected persons are typically contagious for 10 days, and can spread the virus even if they do not develop symptoms. Mutations have produced many strains (variants) with varying degrees of infectivity and virulence.[6][7]

COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and widely distributed in various countries since December 2020. Other recommended preventive measures include social distancing, masking, improving ventilation and air filtration, and quarantining those who have been exposed or are symptomatic. Treatments include monoclonal antibodies,[8] novel antiviral drugs, and symptom control. Governmental interventions include travel restrictions, lockdowns, business restrictions and closures, workplace hazard controls, quarantines, testing systems, and tracing contacts of the infected.

The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[9] Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption and panic buying. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights.

  1. ^ Zoumpourlis V, Goulielmaki M, Rizos E, Baliou S, Spandidos DA (October 2020). "[Comment] The COVID‑19 pandemic as a scientific and social challenge in the 21st century". Molecular Medicine Reports. 22 (4): 3035–3048. doi:10.3892/mmr.2020.11393. PMC 7453598. PMID 32945405.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference who-origins-20210330 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference :7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "COVID-19 Projections". Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  6. ^ CDC (11 February 2020). "COVID-19 and Your Health". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  7. ^ Clinical Questions about COVID‑19: Questions and Answers US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  8. ^ Office of the Commissioner (23 November 2020). "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of COVID-19". FDA. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  9. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.

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