COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
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COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people by state, as of October 17
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationUnited States
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1]
Index caseChicago, Illinois (earliest known arrival)[2]
Everett, Washington (first case report)[3]
Arrival dateJanuary 13, 2020[4]
(1 year, 9 months, 1 week and 5 days ago)
Confirmed cases45,427,464[5]
Suspected cases120,259,370 (CDC estimate in May 2021)[6]
  • 735,800[5]
  • 767,000 (CDC estimate in May 2021)[6]
Fatality rate
  • 1.61% (CDC)
  • 1.61% (JHU)
  • 220,145,796[5] (65.46%) (people with at least one dose)
  • 190,402,262[5] (56.61%) (fully vaccinated people)
Government website
Suspected cases have not been confirmed by laboratory tests as being due to this strain, although some other strains may have been ruled out.
COVID-19 cases in the United States

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since January 2020, 45,427,464[5] confirmed cases have been reported with 735,800[5] deaths, the most of any country, and the twentieth-highest per capita worldwide.[8] As many infections have gone undetected, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that, as of May 2021, there could be a total 120.2 million infections in the United States, or more than a third of the total population.[9][6] COVID-19 is the deadliest pandemic in U.S. history;[10] it was the third-leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.[11] From 2019 to 2020, U.S. life expectancy dropped by 3 years for Hispanic Americans, 2.9 years for African Americans, and 1.2 years for white Americans.[12] These effects have persisted as U.S. deaths due to COVID-19 in 2021 exceeded those in 2020.[13]

On December 31, 2019, China announced the discovery of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan. The first American case was reported on January 20, and President Donald Trump declared the U.S. outbreak a public health emergency on January 31. Restrictions were placed on flights arriving from China,[14][15] but the initial U.S. response to the pandemic was otherwise slow, in terms of preparing the healthcare system, stopping other travel, and testing.[16][17][18][a]

The first known American deaths occurred in February. On March 6, 2020, Trump allocated $8.3 billion to fight the outbreak and declared a national emergency on March 13. The government also purchased large quantities of medical equipment, invoking the Defense Production Act of 1950 to assist.[20] By mid-April, disaster declarations were made by all states and territories as they all had increasing cases. A second wave of infections began in June, following relaxed restrictions in several states, leading to daily cases surpassing 60,000. By mid-October, a third surge of cases began; there were over 200,000 new daily cases during parts of December 2020 and January 2021.[21][22]

COVID-19 vaccines became available in December 2020, under emergency use, beginning the national vaccination program, with the first vaccine officially approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on August 23, 2021.[23] Studies have shown them to be highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death. In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC found that those who were not vaccinated were from 5 to nearly 30 times more likely to become either infected or hospitalized. There has nonetheless been some vaccine hesitancy for various reasons, although side effects are rare.[24][25][26] There have also been numerous reports that unvaccinated COVID-19 patients have strained the capacity of hospitals throughout the country, forcing many to turn away patients with life-threatening diseases.

A fourth rise in infections began in March amidst the rise of the Alpha variant, a more easily transmissible variant first detected in the United Kingdom. That was followed by a rise of the Delta variant, an even more infectious mutation first detected in India, leading to increased efforts to ensure safety. State and local responses to the pandemic have included mask mandates, prohibition and cancellation of large-scale gatherings (including festivals and sporting events), stay-at-home orders, and school closures.[27] Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among Black and Latino populations,[28][29][30] as well as elevated levels of vaccine hesitancy,[31][32] and there were reported incidents of xenophobia and racism against Asian Americans.[33] Clusters of infections and deaths have occurred in many areas.[b]

  1. ^ Sheikh K, Rabin RC (March 10, 2020). "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  2. ^ "Coronavirus: the first three months as it happened". Nature. April 22, 2020. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00154-w. PMID 32152592. S2CID 212652777.
  3. ^ Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. (March 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. PMC 7092802. PMID 32004427.
  4. ^ "Second Travel-related Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Detected in United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Second Travel-related Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Detected in United States: The patient returned to the U.S. from Wuhan on January 13, 2020
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c "Estimated COVID-19 Burden". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). July 27, 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  7. ^ "U.S. recovered COVID-19 cases". Worldometer. Frequently updated.
  8. ^ "Mortality Analyses". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  9. ^ Nedelman M (April 29, 2021). "More than a third of the US has been infected with Covid-19, CDC estimates". CNN. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  10. ^ "COVID-19 surpasses 1918 flu as deadliest pandemic in U.S. history". National Geographic. September 21, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021.
  11. ^ Stobbe M (December 21, 2020). "US deaths in 2020 top 3 million, by far most ever counted". Associated Press. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  12. ^ Bosman J, Kasakove S, Victor D (July 21, 2021). "U.S. Life Expectancy Plunged in 2020, Especially for Black and Hispanic Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  13. ^ Shapiro E, Pereira I, Deliso M (October 6, 2021). "COVID-19 live updates: More Americans died of COVID this year than all of 2020". ABC News. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  14. ^ Aubrey A (January 31, 2020). "Trump Declares Coronavirus A Public Health Emergency And Restricts Travel From China". NPR. Retrieved March 18, 2020. 'Foreign nationals other than immediate family of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who have traveled in China in the last 14 days will be denied entry into United States,' Azar said.
  15. ^ Robertson L (April 15, 2020). "Trump's Snowballing China Travel Claim". Retrieved April 29, 2020. ... effective February 2.
  16. ^ Lemire J, Miller Z, Colvin J, Alonso-Zaldivar R (April 12, 2020). "Signs missed and steps slowed in Trump's pandemic response". Associated Press. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  17. ^ Pilkington E, McCarthy T (March 28, 2020). "The missing six weeks: how Trump failed the biggest test of his life". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  18. ^ Ollstein AM (April 14, 2020). "Trump halts funding to World Health Organization". Politico. ISSN 2381-1595. Wikidata Q104180080. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  19. ^ Whoriskey P, Satija N (March 16, 2020). "How U.S. coronavirus testing stalled: Flawed tests, red tape and resistance to using the millions of tests produced by the WHO". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  20. ^ Watson K (March 27, 2020). "Trump invokes Defense Production Act to require GM to produce ventilators". CBS News. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  21. ^ "COVID-19 Cases Are Skyrocketing, But Deaths Are Flat – So Far. These 5 Charts Explain Why". Time. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  22. ^ "COVID Data Tracker". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 28, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  23. ^ "FDA Approves First COVID-19 Vaccine". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). August 23, 2021. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  24. ^ "Vaccine Side Effects vs. COVID-19 Damage? There's No Comparison", Healthline, July 6, 2021
  25. ^ "Fauci: Polio would still exist in US if 'false information' being spread now existed decades ago", ABC News, July 20, 2021
  26. ^ Stieg C (July 6, 2021). "Dr. Fauci: Where to expect new Covid surges in the U.S.—and what it means for mask-wearing, other restrictions". CNBC. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  27. ^ Deb S, Cacciola S, Stein M (March 11, 2020). "Sports Leagues Bar Fans and Cancel Games Amid Coronavirus Outbreak". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  28. ^ Godoy M (May 30, 2020). "What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?". NPR.
  29. ^ Karson K, Scanlan Q (May 22, 2020). "Black Americans and Latinos nearly 3 times as likely to know someone who died of COVID-19: Poll". ABC News.
  30. ^ "States tracking COVID-19 race and ethnicity data". American Medical Association. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  31. ^ Beleche T, et al. (May 2021). "COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy: Demographic Factors, Geographic Patterns, and Changes Over Time" (PDF). Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US HHS. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  32. ^ Livingston C (April 8, 2021). "Black Americans' Vaccine Hesitancy is Grounded in More Than Mistrust". Duke University. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  33. ^ Tavernise S, Oppel Jr RA (March 23, 2020). "Spit On, Yelled At, Attacked: Chinese-Americans Fear for Their Safety". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  34. ^ "COVID-19 Infections And Deaths Are Higher Among Those With Intellectual Disabilities". NPR.
  35. ^ "U.S. Navy Policies Battling COVID-19 Rely Heavily On Isolation". NPR.

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