Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson
Portrait photograph of a 55-year-old Johnson
Official portrait, 2019
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Assumed office
24 July 2019
MonarchElizabeth II
DeputyDominic Raab[a]
Preceded byTheresa May
Leader of the Conservative Party
Assumed office
23 July 2019
Preceded byTheresa May
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
In office
13 July 2016 – 9 July 2018
Prime MinisterTheresa May
Preceded byPhilip Hammond
Succeeded byJeremy Hunt
Mayor of London
In office
3 May 2008 – 9 May 2016
Preceded byKen Livingstone
Succeeded bySadiq Khan
Member of Parliament
for Uxbridge and South Ruislip
Assumed office
7 May 2015
Preceded byJohn Randall
Majority7,210 (15.0%)[1]
Member of Parliament
for Henley
In office
7 June 2001 – 4 June 2008
Preceded byMichael Heseltine
Succeeded byJohn Howell
Personal details
Born
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson

(1964-06-19) 19 June 1964 (age 57)
New York City, US
Citizenship
Political partyConservative
Spouse(s)
(m. 1987⁠–⁠1993)
(m. 1993; div. 2020)
(m. 2021)
Children6
MotherCharlotte Fawcett
FatherStanley Johnson
Relatives
Residence10 Downing Street
EducationEton College
Alma materBalliol College, Oxford (BA)
Signature
WebsiteBoris Johnson website

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (/ˈfɛfəl/;[3] born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since July 2019. He was Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2016 to 2018 and Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015 and was previously MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. He has been described as adhering to the ideology of one-nation and national conservatism.

Johnson was educated at Eton College and studied Classics at Balliol College, Oxford. He was elected President of the Oxford Union in 1986. In 1989, he became the Brussels correspondent, and later political columnist, for The Daily Telegraph, where his articles exerted a strong Eurosceptic influence on the British right-wing of politics. He was editor of The Spectator magazine from 1999 to 2005. After being elected to Parliament in 2001, Johnson was a shadow minister under Conservative leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron. In 2008, he was elected Mayor of London and resigned from the House of Commons; he was re-elected as mayor in 2012. In the 2015 election, Johnson was elected MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip. The following year, he did not seek re-election as mayor. He became a prominent figure in the successful Vote Leave campaign for Brexit in the 2016 EU membership referendum. Theresa May appointed him foreign secretary after the referendum; he resigned the position two years later in protest at May's approach to Brexit and the Chequers Agreement.

After May resigned in 2019, Johnson was elected Conservative leader and appointed prime minister. He re-opened Brexit negotiations and in early September controversially prorogued Parliament; the Supreme Court ruled the action unlawful later that month.[b] After agreeing a revised Brexit withdrawal agreement with the EU, which replaced the Irish backstop with a new Northern Ireland Protocol, but failing to win parliamentary support for the agreement, Johnson called a snap election for December 2019 in which he led the Conservative Party to victory with 43.6% of the vote, and the party's largest seat share since 1987. On 31 January 2020, the United Kingdom withdrew from the EU, entering into a transition period and trade negotiations leading to the EU–UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement. Johnson reacted slowly to the COVID-19 pandemic; his government responded with various legislation including the Coronavirus Act 2020, which granted it emergency powers to introduce public health measures and mitigate its impact.

Johnson is considered a controversial figure in British politics.[5][6] Supporters have praised him as humorous and entertaining,[7] with an appeal stretching beyond traditional Conservative voters.[8][9] Conversely, his critics have accused him of elitism, cronyism, and bigotry.[10][11][12] Commentators have described his political style as opportunistic or pragmatic.[13][14]
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  1. ^ "Uxbridge & South Ruislip". BBC News. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  2. ^ Croucher, Shane (23 July 2019). "Britain's new prime minister was a U.S. citizen for decades—until the IRS caught up with him". Newsweek. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Boris Johnson". Who Do You Think You Are?. 20 August 2008. BBC.
  4. ^ R (on the application of Miller) (Appellant) v The Prime Minister (Respondent), 12 (Supreme Court of the United Kingdom 2019).Text
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference ABC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference FT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Gimson 2012, p. 20.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Telegraph150107 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Purnell 2011, p. 327.
  10. ^ Edwards & Isaby 2008, p. 110.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference GuardChums was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Purnell 2011, p. 365.
  13. ^ Purnell 2011, p. 121.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference IT190623 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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